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  • Writer's pictureBrain Booster Articles


Author: Vani Sharma, I year of B.A.,LL.B.(Hons.) from Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Management Studies, GGSIPU


Unresolvable disputes can be challenging to handle, especially when negotiation and mediation have failed to reach a satisfactory resolution. In such cases, it may be necessary to explore other options to resolve the conflict.One approach is to seek the assistance of a neutral third party, such as an arbitrator or a judge, who can make a binding decision on the matter. This approach is often used in legal disputes, where parties may have exhausted all other options for resolution.Another option is to consider alternative dispute resolution methods, such as collaborative law or restorative justice. These approaches involve bringing together the parties involved in the dispute to work collaboratively towards a mutually acceptable solution.In some cases, it may be necessary to take a break from the dispute and revisit it at a later time. This can allow for emotions to cool down and for parties to approach the conflict with a fresh perspective.Regardless of the approach taken, it is essential to approach unresolvable disputes with a willingness to listen and communicate effectively. By maintaining an open mind and a willingness to work towards a resolution, parties can increase the likelihood of finding a satisfactory outcomes


ADR stands for Alternative Dispute Resolution, which refers to a range of methods for resolving disputes outside of traditional courtroom litigation. ADR methods include mediation, arbitration, negotiation, and conciliation. In the current legal world, ADR has become increasingly popular as an alternative to the expensive, time-consuming, and often adversarial process of litigation. ADR is used in a variety of contexts, including civil lawsuits, family law disputes, employment disputes, and business transactions.

One of the primary advantages of ADR is its flexibility. Unlike litigation, which is often bound by strict procedural rules and timelines, ADR methods can be tailored to the specific needs and goals of the parties involved. For example, parties may choose to use mediation to preserve a business relationship, rather than engaging in a lengthy and costly lawsuit.


ADR, or alternative dispute resolution, refers to methods of resolving disputes outside of traditional court proceedings. ADR methods can include mediation, arbitration, negotiation, and other processes.

The efficacy of ADR can vary depending on the specific circumstances and the particular method of ADR used. However, in general, ADR can be an effective way to resolve disputes in a timely and cost-effective manner.

One of the main benefits of ADR is that it can often be faster than going to court. Court proceedings can be lengthy and time-consuming, whereas ADR can often be completed in a matter of weeks or months. Additionally, ADR can be less expensive than going to court, as it typically involves fewer legal fees and other costs.

Another potential benefit of ADR is that it can be less adversarial than going to court. In some cases, parties may be more willing to reach a compromise or settlement through ADR than they would be in a courtroom setting.

However, there are also potential drawbacks to ADR. For example, some parties may be hesitant to use ADR because they believe it may result in an unfair outcome. Additionally, the lack of formal legal procedures and protections in ADR can be a disadvantage for some parties.

The efficacy of ADR depends on the specific circumstances and the particular method of ADR used. In some cases, ADR can be an effective and efficient way to resolve disputes, while in other cases, it may not be appropriate or effective.

Another advantage of ADR is that it can be more efficient and cost-effective than litigation. Because ADR methods are designed to be less formal and less adversarial than litigation, they can often be completed more quickly and with less expense. Additionally, ADR allows parties to avoid the uncertainties and risks of litigation, which can be especially important in complex or high-stakes disputes.

Overall, ADR has become an increasingly popular option for resolving disputes in the legal world. Its flexibility, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness make it a valuable tool for parties seeking to resolve conflicts in a more collaborative and constructive way.


Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is often a valuable tool for resolving conflicts outside of the courtroom. However, there may be situations where ADR is not an option or has been attempted and proven unsuccessful. In these cases, it’s important to have a Here are some tips:

  • Identify the core issue: Sometimes, a dispute can be boiled down to a single issue or concern that is at the heart of the conflict. Identifying this core issue can help you focus your efforts on finding a solution that addresses it.

  • Seek a neutral third party: If ADR is not an option, consider seeking the assistance of a neutral third party, such as a mediator or arbitrator. They can help facilitate communication and negotiation between the parties involved, and may be able to help identify alternative solutions.

  • Explore alternative dispute resolution methods: While traditional ADR methods like mediation and arbitration may not be an option, there may be other creative methods of dispute resolution that can be employed, such as collaborative law, restorative justice, or conflict coaching.

  • Consider litigation: If all other options have been exhausted, litigation may be the only remaining option. However, it’s important to weigh the potential costs and benefits of litigation before proceeding. Litigation can be a long and expensive process, and there is no guarantee of a favorable outcome.

  • Take care of yourself: Dealing with a dispute can be stressful and emotionally draining. Make sure to take care of yourself throughout the process by getting plenty of rest, engaging in stress-reducing activities, and seeking support from friends, family, or a therapist if needed.

Dealing with unresolvable disputes can be challenging, but there are still options available. By identifying the core issue, seeking a neutral third party, exploring alternative dispute resolution methods, considering litigation, and taking care of yourself, you can work towards finding a resolution that is as satisfactory as possible under the circumstances.


ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) is a method of resolving disputes without going to court. It includes several methods such as negotiation, mediation, and arbitration. While ADR can be effective in many situations, there are some cases where it may not be applicable. Here are some situations where ADR may not be appropriate:

  • Lack of willingness to participate: ADR requires the willingness of all parties to participate in the process. If one party refuses to participate or engage in the process, ADR may not be a viable option.

  • Urgent or emergency situations: ADR may not be suitable for urgent or emergency situations, such as cases that require immediate injunctive relief. In such cases, court intervention may be necessary.

  • Matters of public interest: Cases that involve matters of public interest or concern, such as environmental issues, may require the intervention of the court to ensure that the public’s interests are protected.

  • Criminal cases: ADR is not appropriate for criminal cases, as the criminal justice system is designed to address criminal matters.

  • Matters involving complex legal issues: ADR may not be appropriate for cases that involve complex legal issues or require a detailed interpretation of the law. In such cases, a court may be better equipped to handle the matter.

  • Cases involving a power imbalance: ADR may not be suitable for cases where there is a significant power imbalance between the parties, such as cases involving employers and employees. In such cases, the weaker party may feel coerced or intimidated into agreeing to a settlement.

  • Cases involving a large number of parties: ADR may not be suitable for cases that involve a large number of parties, as it may be difficult to coordinate and manage the process effectively.

While ADR can be an effective means of resolving disputes, it is not always appropriate for every situation. It is essential to carefully consider the circumstances of the dispute before deciding whether to pursue ADR or seek court intervention.

In the case of Afcons Infrastructure Ltd. V. Cherian Varkey Construction Co. (P) Ltd. & Ors., (2010) 8 SCC 24, the Supreme Court of India identified the following categories of cases that are not suitable for alternative dispute resolution (ADR) due to their nature:

  • Cases involving serious and specific allegations of fraud, embezzlement, money laundering, or corruption.

  • Cases where the rights of third parties are involved or where the rights of vulnerable sections of society are affected.

  • Cases involving disputes that raise substantial questions of law, which require the interpretation and application of complex legal principles.

  • Cases that involve a large number of parties, and where it is impractical to have all parties participate in the ADR process.

  • Cases involving public interest litigation, where the outcome has a significant impact on public policy or affects a large section of society.

The court noted that these categories of cases require the rigours of a full-fledged trial and are best dealt with in a formal court setting.


In India, there are several laws and regulations related to ADR, including:

  • Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996: This act governs domestic arbitration, international commercial arbitration, and conciliation in India. It provides a legal framework for the settlement of disputes outside of the court system through arbitration and conciliation.

  • The Commercial Courts, Commercial Division and Commercial Appellate Division of High Courts Act, 2015: This act establishes commercial courts at the district level and commercial divisions in high courts to handle commercial disputes. It also provides for the referral of commercial disputes to arbitration or other ADR mechanisms.

  • The Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987: This act provides for the establishment of legal aid centers and the provision of free legal services to the poor and marginalized sections of society. It also encourages the use of ADR mechanisms to resolve disputes.

  • The Consumer Protection Act, 2019: This act provides for the establishment of consumer dispute redressal commissions at the district, state, and national levels. It also encourages the use of ADR mechanisms, such as mediation and conciliation, to settle consumer disputes.

  • The Code of Civil Procedure, 1908: This code provides for the use of ADR mechanisms, such as arbitration and mediation, to resolve civil disputes. It also provides for the appointment of court-appointed mediators to facilitate the settlement of disputes.

In addition to these laws, there are also several institutional mechanisms in India for ADR, such as the Indian Council of Arbitration, the International Centre for Alternative Dispute Resolution, and the Delhi Dispute Resolution Society. These institutions provide infrastructure and support for ADR mechanisms and promote their use in resolving disputes.


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