THE HYBRID DOMAIN OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN NEW ERA
Author: Tanmayi Yadav, II year of B.A.,LL.B. from Lloyd law College
Co-author: Abhishek Mishra, II year of B.A.,LL.B. from Lloyd law College
NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (NPA)
New Public Administration was first started in America in 1960 because the American society was facing a number of problems like the Vietnam war, population increase, environmental problem, increase in social conflict, economic crisis and all. This all problem led the younger generation of American society to start questioning the efficacy of the political and administrative system. These all problem led the administration to bring change in administration and restoration of value and public purpose was suggested. Being responsive towards the problem of the people was felt necessary at that point of time in America and that gave birth to the New Public Administration (NPA).
RISE OF NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
The honey report of public administration – John honey in his report on higher education for public service evaluated public administration as a field of study in all the universities and in his report he said that we need new public administration in our society to bring positive change. The Philadelphia conference on the theory and practice of Public Administration (1967) under the chairmanship of James. C. Charlesworth. The minnow book conference (1968). Publication of “toward a New Public Administration: The MinnowBrook Perspective'' edited by Frank Marini (1971).
MINNOWBROOK CONFERENCE (1968)
In late 1960 the younger generation of scholars gathered at minnow brook under the patronage of Dwight Waldo. The younger generation was fed up with the traditional approach so they decided to change it. They were saying that traditional public administration was not able to deal with the problem of the people and it was lacking in providing all the facilities to the society. And traditional public administration was not showing interest in the institution of the society, that is the reason they were thinking that traditional public administration was less concerned toward the contemporary issues of the society. That’s why they gathered at Minnow brook. This get-together led to “NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION”. The main agenda of the New Public administration was sensitivity and concern for a societal problem. It was established to deal with all the problem which was present in the society
THEMES OF NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Relevance – This word is being re-interpretation from traditional public administration. The younger generation wanted it to make it more relevant so that it can deal with the contemporary issue present in society. Dealing with contemporary issues demands a radical curriculum change to facilitate meaningful studies oriented towards the realities of public life.
Values- New Public Administration rejected value-neutral position because discipline should explicitly espouse the cause of disadvantaged sections of society. It decides its own norms and values to deal with the contemporary issues which were there in the society. To deal with the issue we need to have positive value because with the negative value we can -not deal with the issues.
Social Equity- It called upon administrations to become champions of the underprivileged. It was done to make public administration more proactive to deal with the major social issues.
Change- To serve the cause of social equity is to actively work for social change which is the main motive of New Public Administration.
These all themes were based on a single motive that is to deal with the contemporary issues which were present in the society. Because the formation of NPA was done because traditional public administration was not able to solve all the problem and somewhere it was lacking in providing good governance because for a better society we need to have a better administration which deals with all the issue and which makes everything work smooth in the society.
ANTI-GOALS IN NPA
According to Robert T. Golembiewski, the anti goals for NPA are-
Anti-Positivist- It means rejecting the definition of Public Administration as value-free. It works to reduce rigidity in Administration to make it more adaptable, problem- solving.
Anti- Technical- It means condemning human beings sacrificed to the logic of machines and systems.
Anti- Bureaucratic and Anti- Hierarchical- As we know hierarchy promotes bureaucracy. It kills creativity and innovation and brings rigidities.
FEATURES OF NPA
It is flexible and is ready to adapt to deal with the changing environment. It is rational as it judges the administration action not only from the point of view of the government but also from the citizen perspective. As we know that it is based on a citizen-centric perspective so it works for the welfare of the citizen. It tunes with the relevant situation and need of the environment. It works to provide what society needs at that hour. It has an understanding of various approaches including political as well as management and all and that makes its work more efficient.
New Public Administration made administration more sensitive to real social problems, social- equity. It became the voice of voiceless people. It restored values, ethics and norms without diluting rationality. This new policy brought administration closer to politics – dilution of administration- politics dichotomy. It made public administration citizen-centric (more relevant). It helped 3rd world countries to fight poverty, inequality and other pressing social problems. It made public administration a change agent or radical social reformer. It gave 3rd world countries a new perspective to look at and to work for the betterment of their people. Ir provides them with a wider look and brings new changes to their society.
CONS OF NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
It was more of a reaction to classic administration based on the Wilsonian- Weberian model of neutrality, impersonality, positivism, and rationality than any new intellectual force. Some were saying that its goals and principal were clever re-packaging of old ideas. It could not provide an alternative problem-solving theory of administration. It originated in the context of the socio-political crisis in the USA in 1960- that is the limited impact was taken by outside taken by NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT. It increased hostility between the administration and elected political executives.
PROMINENT CONTRIBUTOR OF NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
Dwight Waldo (1913-2000): He was an American political scientist. He was the most influential modern public administration scholar. He led the NPA movement by heading the 1st Minnow- brook conference. He believes in ideas of positive value, normative, socially responsive, dynamic and relevant public organization which deeply influenced the NPA movement. H. George Frederickson (1934): HE is an American public administration scholar. He contributed from the 2nd Minnow- brook conference. He is the only one who proposed ‘social- equity’ as the 3rd pillar of NPA. Herbert Kaufman (1922): He is an American political scientist and scholar of public administration. He was a professor at ‘Yale university’. John Rawls (1921-2002): he was the most influential political philosopher of the 20th century. He gave his theory of Justice as Justice of fairness influenced new public administration in many ways.
NPA has brought so many changes to society. It helped the administration getting closer and more accountable to society/citizens. It has restored value, ethics, and social justice without compromising rationality. It helped 3rd world countries to fight it with their basic needs like poverty, inequality, and other social problems. It made it more citizen-centric and result oriented.