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STRATERGIES INDIA CAN ADOPT TO BE ENERGY SECURE BY 2050

Author: Iesha Sharma, V year of BA-LLB Specialization in Energy Laws from UPES, Dehradun


INTRODUCTION

All of the societies require the energy services to meet all of the human needs to serve the production process and to develop the sustainable, delivery of energy services and the needs to secure and have the low environmental impact with the sustainable social and economic development and as it is required to assured and to make an affordable access to the energy resources and to provide the essential and the sustainable energy services. To begin with the environmental regime and gain the environmental impact while having the low greenhouse gas emission [GHG]. The intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] Fourth Assessment Report [AR4][1] which has the same value as in 2008 with the combustion of the fossil fuel be counted as 56.6 percent of all of the other GHG emission in 2004 survey. Climate change has been one of the great challenges on the 21st century and it serves as the impact may be avoided if the efforts are been made to have the current energy systems. The renewable energy has the large impact on the domestic energy as the energy source. It brings with the imported fuels which is the fairly have the significant percentage of the gross domestic products [GDP] in the many imported countries and often has been contributed as the trade deficit with the sources such as the wind, solar and the biomass and it has the potential in it for the direct reduction in the import and it often contribute in the trade deficit. Moreover the greater use of the renewable would create the greater reduction on the oil and the gas and prices and it would reduce the price and it would become volatility with the electricity sector have the mainly reduce the need to import the gas or coal as it will use is limited in this sector.


The Energy use have simply, the energy efficiency with the goal of to reduce the amount of energy which required the products and services reading the WTO, governing the trade relations amongst the members at the international level and have in the field of the multilateral energy Trade[2]. To enhance the energy trade governance system with the fragmented and have the multi-layered legal cohesiveness and the international and the political and economic cooperation that would promote the energy security[3]. Energy efficiency stands out as an important issue and supply security, economic development with competitiveness on one hand with the balance between the environment and sustainability and making gains in all of the issues on the others[4]. Energy efficiency offers a power sustainable energy future.


Improvement in the investment for energy infrastructure competitiveness and improve consumer welfare achieved by the reduction of green addition, energy efficiency for the country’s dependence on the foreign energy supplies[5]. In additional possibility of the diminishing sources of the fossil fuels, there is a problem in the production of carbon dioxide from the burning of the fossil fuels. In today’s energy security has the worldwide concern due to the uneven distribution of energy supply across the world. The energy power and their economics have the common threat with a non-commercial energy source such as the bio-mass has the high energy and with the large development countries. Energy security, broadly understood, and has been connotes the capacity of a nation to satisfy the energy needs of current and future generations with the motive of the conservation.


CONSEQUENCES OF INDIA’S SURGING ENERGY DEMAND

The International Energy Agency (IEA) defines energy security as "the physical availability of energy at a price which is affordable, while respecting environment concerns[6]. Among end use sectors, transport energy demand sees the fastest rate of growth as the vehicle stock expands rap idly with rising economic activity and household incomes. In the absence of strong policy action, higher energy demand will drive up imports of oil, gas and coal, and greenhouse gas emissions[7]. Primary energy is expected to double between now and 2030. Coal will remain India's most important fuel, its use nearly tripling between now and 2030. With 7% of the world's coal; India has the world's fourth largest coal reserve. The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) estimates that at the current level of consumption and production, India's coal reserves will last for more than 200 years[8], but unfortunately, in addition to environment concerns (coal is the dirtiest of all hydro carbon fuels), it can't meet all of India's energy needs as many industries like the transportation industry require oil, and coal cannot serve as an effective substitute[9].


An infrastructure advisory study conducted by FICCT- CRISIL on 'Indian Power Sector: Holistic Capacity Building' has warned the government that if urgent steps are not taken to bridge the energy - particularly electricity - supply deficit, the economic growth might be derailed leaving the country in lurch. The study says that the country at present is witnessing a very high peak electricity supply deficit of 12-13 % and an energy shortage of 6-8 %, with which it is improbable for India to sustain high levels of economic growth that might be derailed leaving the country in the lurch[10]. Even the Central Electricity Authority has estimates that to meet it requirements, India would need an addition of at least 161 GW of electricity generation capacity of the India’s production during the 11th and 12th five year plan periods which has been calculated as per the survey conducted. Thus, it can be gauged that the country's increase in demand for energy is not being reflected in its capacity building of energy infrastructure in rural areas with most of the increase coming from urban developed regions of the country. Thus, enhancement of energy security demands an appropriate choice not just of technologies and carriers, but it has also concluded from the institutional structures and delivery systems or the output that ensure access to even the poorest sections of the populations which are having heavy social or environmental burden to the society and the environment, even if it is not directly reflected in short-term costs of energy services, is likely to erode the competitiveness of an energy strategy in the long run, and hence, diminish security.


RENWEABLE ENERGY OPTIONS

An energy policy that would enhances energy security of a nation in the real sense has to be centred on a set of renewable energy options while administering the process that can be attainted. A country can improve its energy security by building domestic capabilities in development, manufacturing, capacity enhancement programs and featured developments, operation and storage based on a wide mix of such options. This is because:

(i) The capital costs of several renewable energy technologies are declining inter- nationally thanks to the increases in R&D investments and installed cumulative operational capacity.


(ii) Several renew- able energy resources are available in India - like solar, solid biomass, liquid biofuels, wind and micro hydel - that offer a wide base on which a robust energy strategy can be built.


(iii) Technologies like solar PV, solar thermal, biomass gasifier, biogas plant and micro hydel facilitate the decentralised and community-based production of useful energy carriers like electricity and gas, and they cause much less environmental damage than fossil fuel-based[11].


The International Energy Agency [IEA 2002] reports that commercial bio- mass, wind, solar and other non-(large) hydropower renewables are expected to be the fastest growing primary energy source in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Junginger (2005) case had estimates rapid ongoing learning for wind farm technology with an average progress ratio of about 80 per cent, that would imply its unit capital cost reduces by 20 per cent for every doubling of capacity on it outer areas. Other studies, like Kram et al (2000) and McDonald and Schrattenholzer (2001)[12] have estimated wind turbines' progress ratio at 83-92 per cement. There few of the global trends that are likely to scale up in both the course of this country and force the global driving with the energy structure and the changes with regards to the environmental concerns and the technology progress. Technologies that are non-polluting in nature and conducive for small- to medium-scale businesses will become more competitive. And manage to host a renewable energy technologies bill that could fit in today’s market space under all circumstances.


IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIA COMPETITION FOR THE SAME RESOURCES

Like China, India is also experiencing a rising energy demand due to its economic dynamism, urbanisation and the increasingly energy intensive consumption patterns. At the same time, approximately 21 percent of population in India live below the national poverty line[13] and ensuring universal access to energy is expected to add to the energy demand. For example, the launch of various schemes like Saubhagya and DeenDayalUpadhyay Gram JyotiYojna(DDUGJY) by the Government of India in making power accessible and affordable for all may add to the growing energy demand in the coming years by more than 28 GW[14] Shows some energy trends and forecasts for India[15]. Accordingly, the IEA has predicted that India alone will account for “30 percent” of the entire global increase in energy demand through 2040[16].The increasing demand for energy is exhibited in India’s rising energy imports that accounted for 34.6 percent of total energy used in 2014 as compared to 8.79 percent in 1991[17]. Despite rise in energy imports, the mismatch between demand and supply still exists. In 2018-19, India witnessed deficit in electricity supply where peak demand was 177,022 MW as compared to the peak demand met at 175,528 MW[18]. Like China, India also faces the challenge of developing innovative ways to secure access to affordable, continuous and sustainable energy supplies to all its people.


CONCLUSION

India drastically change its energy strategy towards one that places the highest priority on a wide set of renewable energy options. If Indian R&D institutions and companies invest in the in-house development of such technologies and now that our energy sector along with the economy have taken a huge leap for the future since, and wind and micro hydro resources. That we would be at the forefront in those technologies that would increase and become competitive. The government of India must have taken the huge resources that would increase the competition for upscaling the manufacturing and supply for the technologies for the production of the electricity and heath and other end-use energy for the biomass, solar energy etc. A robust mechanism would make and enhance the domestic development, manufacturing and it would supply the capabilities in the technologies that are slidind down and to learn the curve globally and ensure the dispersed and reliable supply of the useful energy carrier to the poor as well as the non-poor citizens that are developing and drastically there can we see the reduction for the local air pollution and greenhouse gas emission that will be the only one that can truly make the India energy secure in the longer run.

[1]Asian Development Bank (2013) Energy Outlook for Asia and the Pacific. Development Bank. Available at: www.abd.org [2] The WTO, the multilateral organization with the highest profile in international trade, was created to satisfy the need for a better institutional and dispute resolution mechanism within the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) system. The original proposal for a new "Multilateral Trade Organization" was included in the Draft Final Act of the Uruguay Round and transformed the GATT into the new international organization, which came into being on 1 January 1995, with a change in name to World Trade Organization. See Mitsuo Matsushita, Thomas J. Schoen baum and Rétros C. Mavroidis, The World Trade Organization: law, practice, and policy, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press 2006) 6-7. Hereinafter Matsushita, The World Trade Organization [3] Multilateral, Regional and Bilateral Energy Trade Governance, Rafael Leal-Areas, Costantino Grasso and Juan Alemany, Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review , 2015, Vol. 6, No. 1 (2015), pp. 38-87 [4] "Indian Power Sector: Holistic Capacity Building", New Delhi: 3,d International Exhibition and Conference on Power Sector, 11 September 2008/Web. 13 February 2011, available at http://www.dolatcapital.com/downloads/india_electricity_ 2008_visit_note_190908 [5]Prabhash K. Dutta, "Energy Deficit Derailing India's Growth Story", Headlines India, 8 September 2008. [6] IEA, "Energy Security"15 February 2011, available at: http://www.iea.org/subjectqueries/keyresult.aspfKEYWORD_ ID=4103. [7] IEA, "World Energy Outlook 2007: Fact Sheet - India". Available on the internet at: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublica tions/publication/fs_india.pdf (last accessed on 10 August [8]Vibhuti Hate, India's Energy Dilemma (Washington D.C.: South Asia Monitor, Centre for Strategic and International Stud [9] Ibid. [10] "Indian Power Sector: Holistic Capacity Building", New Delhi: 3,d International Exhibition and Conference on Power Sector, 11 September 2008/Web. 13 February 2011, available at http://www.dolatcapital.com/downloads/india_electricity_ 2008_visit_note_190908 [11]EIA (2005): 'Annual Energy Outlook 2005 with Projections to 2025', Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy. [12]Juninger, H M (2005): 'Learning in Renewable Energy Technology Development', Dissertation, University of Utrecht. [13] “Poverty in India”, Asian Development Bank, 2011, https://www.adb.org/countries/india/poverty [14] “No free power for poor under Saubhagya; demand to rise by 28 GW”, The Economic Times, September 27, 2017, https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/energy/power/no-freepower-for-poor-under-saubhagya-demand-to-rise-by28gw/articleshow/60857027.cms?from=mdr. [15] Country Insight -India”, BP p.l.c., n.d., https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statisticalreview-of-world-energy/country-and-regional-insights/india.html and “World Energy Outlook -2017”, International Energy Agency (IEA), December 2019, https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook2017-china. [16] “World Energy Outlook 2017”, International Energy Agency, November 2017, https://www.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2017. [17] “Energy imports, net (% of energy use)”, World Bank, n.d., https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.IMP.CONS.ZS. [18] “Power sector at a Glance ALL INDIA”, Ministry of Power, Government of India, January 14, 2019, https://powermin.nic.in/en/content/powersector-glance-all-india.