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  • Writer's pictureBrain Booster Articles


Author: Kratika Khandelwal, pursuing Bachelor of Commerce from M.K.H.S. Gujarati Girls College, Indore, and Institute of company secretaries of India

Racism is a form of discrimination that involves treating people unfairly based on their perceived or actual racial or ethnic background. It is a belief or attitude that certain races are inherently superior or inferior to others, and it often leads to prejudice, discrimination, and unequal treatment in areas such as education, employment, housing, and healthcare.

Racism can manifest in different forms, including individual acts of prejudice, systemic discrimination, and institutionalized racism. Individual acts of racism include derogatory language, slurs, and violent actions towards individuals or groups based on their race. Systemic discrimination refers to the policies and practices that lead to unequal outcomes for people of different races. Institutionalized racism involves the ways in which society, as a whole, perpetuates and reinforces racist beliefs and practices.

Racism has harmful effects on individuals and society as a whole, including increased social tensions, lower economic opportunities, and reduced access to education and healthcare. It is important for individuals and communities to actively work towards recognizing and addressing racism in all its forms, promoting understanding and respect for people of all races and backgrounds, and promoting equal opportunities and social justice.

There are several different types of racism, including

Individual Racism: This type of racism is expressed through the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of individuals. It includes acts of discrimination, harassment, and prejudice based on a person’s race or ethnicity.

Systemic Racism: This type of racism refers to the ways in which societal institutions, such as the criminal justice system, education system, and housing policies, perpetuate racial inequality and discrimination.

Institutional Racism: This type of racism refers to policies and practices that are embedded within institutions and result in unequal treatment and opportunities for people of different races. Examples include discriminatory hiring practices or lending practices by financial institutions.

Interpersonal Racism: This type of racism occurs in personal interactions between individuals of different races. It includes microaggressions, racial slurs, and other forms of verbal and nonverbal communication that convey racist attitudes and beliefs.

Colorism: This type of racism is based on the belief that lighter skin is superior to darker skin. It often manifests within the same racial or ethnic group and can result in discrimination and prejudice based on skin tone.

Internalized Racism: This type of racism occurs when members of a racial or ethnic group internalize the negative stereotypes and beliefs about their own group. It can lead to self-hatred and feelings of inferiority.

It Is important to understand the different types of racism so that we can recognize and address them in our society. By promoting anti-racism efforts and working to dismantle systemic and institutional racism, we can create a more just and equitable society for all.

Preventing racism requires a collective effort from individuals, communities, and institutions. Here are some ways to prevent racism:

Education: Education is key to preventing racism. We must learn about the history of racism and its impacts on society. We can promote awareness and understanding of different cultures and races through education, training, and dialogue.

Speak out: We must speak out against racism in all its forms. We can challenge racist comments and actions, and promote a culture of respect and acceptance.

Advocate for policies: We can advocate for policies that promote racial equality and justice. This includes policies that address systemic racism, such as housing discrimination and access to quality education and healthcare.

Build relationships: We can build relationships with people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. This can help to break down stereotypes and promote understanding.

Be an ally: We can be an ally to those who experience racism by actively supporting and standing up for them.

Self-reflection: We can examine our own biases and prejudices and work to overcome them. This includes questioning our own assumptions and beliefs and seeking out diverse perspectives.

Support anti-racism efforts: We can support anti-racism efforts in our communities, including grassroots movements and organizations that work towards racial equality and social justice.

By taking these steps, we can prevent racism and work towards creating a more just and equitable society for all.

There are several policies that can help to address racism in society. Here are some examples:

Anti-discrimination laws: These laws prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, or other characteristics in employment, housing, and public accommodations.

Affirmative action: This policy aims to address historical discrimination by giving preferential treatment to members of groups that have been historically disadvantaged, such as racial minorities or women, in areas such as education and employment.

Diversity and inclusion initiatives: These policies aim to increase diversity and promote inclusion in organizations and institutions. This can include measures such as recruitment and hiring practices that prioritize diversity, training programs to increase awareness of different cultures and perspectives, and creating safe and inclusive environments for all.

Implicit bias training: These programs aim to raise awareness of unconscious biases and stereotypes that can impact decision-making and behavior, and provide strategies to overcome them.

Community policing: This policy aims to build trust and positive relationships between law enforcement and the communities they serve, and reduce incidents of police brutality and discrimination.

Restorative justice: This approach to criminal justice aims to repair harm caused by crime and address the underlying causes of crime, rather than simply punishing offenders. It can help to address the disproportionate impact of the criminal justice system on racial minorities.

Reparations: This policy aims to address the legacy of slavery and discrimination by providing compensation to individuals or communities that have been harmed by racism.

These policies, along with ongoing education and awareness-raising efforts, can help to address racism and promote equality and justice for all.

There have been many notable cases of racism throughout history, some of which have brought attention to the ongoing struggle against racism. Here are a few examples:

The Civil Rights Movement in the United States: In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans in the United States fought for their civil rights and an end to segregation and discrimination. Leaders such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks organized peaceful protests and marches to raise awareness of the injustices faced by African Americans. Their efforts led to significant changes in the law, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Apartheid in South Africa: Apartheid was a system of institutionalized racism and segregation in South Africa that lasted from 1948 to 1994. Under apartheid, people were classified into racial categories and were treated differently based on their race. The system was eventually dismantled through peaceful protests, boycotts, and international pressure.

The Murder of George Floyd: In May 2020, George Floyd, an African American man, was killed by police officers in Minneapolis, Minnesota. His death, which was captured on video and shared widely on social media, sparked widespread protests and outrage across the United States and around the world. The incident brought renewed attention to issues of police brutality and systemic racism in the criminal justice system.

The Rohingya Crisis: The Rohingya are a Muslim ethnic minority in Myanmar who have faced discrimination and persecution from the government and Buddhist majority for decades. In 2017, a military crackdown led to a mass exodus of Rohingya refugees to neighboring Bangladesh, with reports of atrocities including murder, rape, and torture. The crisis has been described as a genocide and has drawn international attention and condemnation.

These case studies illustrate the ongoing struggle against racism and the importance of continued efforts to promote equality and justice for all.


Racism is a complex and persistent problem that has existed for centuries and continues to impact societies around the world. It is a form of discrimination that is based on the belief that one race or ethnicity is superior to another, and it can manifest in many different ways, including through individual acts of prejudice, systemic discrimination, and institutionalized racism.

The consequences of racism can be severe, including disparities in access to education, employment, healthcare, and other resources, as well as the perpetuation of violence, poverty, and social exclusion. Addressing racism requires a collective effort from individuals, communities, and institutions, through policies, education, advocacy, and support for anti-racism efforts.

While progress has been made in the fight against racism, there is still much work to be done to create a more just and equitable society for all. By continuing to raise awareness, challenge prejudice, and advocate for change, we can work towards a world that values and celebrates diversity, promotes equality and justice, and rejects all forms of racism and discrimination.

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