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PUBLIC OPINION ON INCREASING SCHOOL DROPOUT

Author: Ieswarya.N, V year of B.A.,LL.B.(Hons.) from Saveetha School of Law


Abstract

School dropout is withdraw from school , the education is basic requirement to enhance once income , talent and knowledge, Article 21A of constitution, RTE act 2010 , states about free and compulsory education to curtail dropout of students, The Union ministry of Human Resource development deals with new policies related to education,mid day meal schemes and various schemes by government to retain students and reduce dropout of students . Objective of the study analyse problems faced by dropout students , opportunities that are available to dropout students, the economic condition of dropout students , To analyze the dropout leads a student to become involved in criminal activities.The research has followed the empirical research with the convenient sampling method. The sample size covered by the researcher is 200. The independent variables are age, gender, educational qualification and occupation. The dependent variables are the reason for School dropout, dropout students involves in crime,respondents know about any dropout students.The statistical tool used here is graphical representation and pie chart distribution , the major findings include on the question the reason for dropout ,highest respondents on misleading companion and lack of parental care ,the dropout students involves in crime many answers neutral that not all dropout involves in criminal activities and many of the respondents are not known any school dropout students ,the need of better implementation of schemes and to create awareness about important of education and technology world education is much needed to sustain .Moreover education creates self confidence and it is also a right to every children.

Key words: Dropout,requirement,retain,crime,confidence.


Introduction

The education is the basic requirement for human development which ultimately increases employment opportunities increases once income level , the school dropout in India since it is very long , however the witness on massive school dropout can be clear by report of MHRD (Ministry of Human Resource development) in the year 2009-2010, which shows 20% of school dropout at Delhi in India , the enactment of Right to education act 2010 , and Article 21A by 86th constitutional amendment states free and compulsory education from 6-14 years of age as a fundamental right.The Union ministry of Human Resource development ( ministry of Education ) deals with new policies related to education, The Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya Scheme to reach education to girls at minority community the scheme was implemented, the samagra Shiksha Abhigyan which enhanced students enrolment and retention of students by improving the infrastructure this scheme was enacted basis of Right to education act 2010 , the mid day meal scheme which provide food along with education increases the enrolment of students .The major factors that affects the topic are low education or illiteracy of parents leads to dropout of children,occupation of parents, large size family but low family income which is difficult for parents to maintain family as well as provide education to their children, immigration, failure in examinations feels low self esteem by students ,distance of school from home , the punishment by teachers this are the reason which increase the school dropout. The recent survey on NGOs organised by Nobel laureate Kailash satyarthi , states 85% of the organisation felt increase in school dropout in post lockdown period , these maybe due to losses household income or financial instability no proper internet facilities to attend classes leads to increase the rate of dropout ,National education policy 2020, states about the infrastructure and effective means of education and to ensure the children attend school moreover it aim to curtail school dropout.The MHRD report 2018 the dropout rate in India on upper primary is 4.13% and secondary level is 17.06% , countries like Spain the school dropout rate is 34% and in Portugal the dropout is 31%-40% the introduce of programs to reduce school dropout was worked to some extent the school dropout decrease from 40% to 32% from 2004 to 2009.The main aim of the research is to analyze the dropout leads a student to become involved in criminal activities.


Objective

To study problems faced by dropout students , to study the opportunities that are available to dropout students, to study the economic condition of dropout students , To analyze the dropout leads a student to become involved in criminal activities.


Review of literature

● In the article of “ factors leading to school dropout in India” written by Sateesh Gouda explains Education Plays a vital role in human development and increases in income level of the individual as per the national family health survey 3 ,75% of the students belongs to the age group 6 to 16 years attend school out of which 14 percentage not attended the school and 11 percentage where is school dropout and the dropper categories mostly belongs to the Muslims SC /ST.(M et al,2014)

● In the article of study of “potential dropout in elementary school of Central U.P” ,written by Sabates briefs The factors are the problems relating to not attending the schools it may be the Indian education system structure or due to the poverty and illiteracy of the parents and the lack of preschool experiences, frustration of the students and the lack of achievement leads a student to drop their school .(Sabates et al,2013).

● In the article of “The enrolment and the dropout percentage of boys and girls in India” written by Ramesh Pandita Explains the secondary data collection of Ministry of human resources and development in the year of 2010 to 11 almost 78.40 % of boys and 81.72 % of the girls dropout before they are reaching the secondary level of education and the population size, socio-economic conditions and Indian education system results as per the author view .(Pandita,2015).

● In the article “The dropout among the boys and girls in U.P” written by Pandey, Gauri explains education can be withdrawn either by the transfer of one school to the other school or by the death and the lack of attendance age and the compulsory schooling which affects socially the students.(Pandey,2012).

● The article of “educational deprivation among women in the ruler area” written by Saravanan explains the need for the education of parents ,distance of schools from the home increases dropout rate of girls as per survey in Kolli Hills Namakkal districts in Tamil Nadu. (Saravanan,2015).

● In the article of risk factors for school dropout in juvenile offenders,written by Asuncion Fernandez , briefs the school dropout causes different levels of behavioural differences in the family and the neighbourhood and resulting deviant attitude irresponsibility can also engage in alcohol abuse and became and also become an juvenile offender on the analysis of the Spain in 2012.(Fernández-Suárez et al,2016).

● In the article of dropping out of high school written by Jeremy Burrus , explains The dropping is quitting the course and fails to complete the school and the major factors are like very poor graduation rates and a well planned behaviour. (Dropping Out of High School: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Remediation Strategies,Burrus,2012).

● In the article of school dropout and offending written by Liu, explains The dropout became delinquents and became offenders to smaller extent while the non dropouts may have well socioeconomic status maybe intelligence.(Liu,2013).

● In the article of relationship between criminal involvement and the school dropout written by Iryna Rud , On the analysis of Netherlands the criminal involvement was 11 percentage higher on the school dropout and the major factors are like the school classmates the family and the individual has been an unobservable .(Rud et al,2018.).

● In the article “Effect of dropping out of high school on criminal behaviour”written by Terence briefs about the sociology theory deals with delinquency and dropout due to criminal behaviour and strain theory dropout behaviour increases by increase in criminal activities leads to dropout later involved in crime. (Thornberry et al,2006).

● In the article “ high school dropout” written by Olof Blackman explains there is no evidence for criminal convictions and dropout among men, women who find occupations reduce criminal convictions.(Lochner,2010).

● In the study of “ Socio economic determinants of primary school dropout” written by “ Haroon Sajjad” on analysis of 4 municipal corporation schools at Delhi the students of vulnerable, urban poor,Muslim community there is dropout ,25% of male dropout from class I to V the reason like poverty and delay on schemes by government.([No Title],Sajjad,2021).

● In the study of “ Economic effects of student dropout” written by Latif.A,Choudhary explains about education economic development vision 2030,which states that education influences productivity, enhances employment opportunities, women empowerment, reduces students dropout, reduces illiteracy rate ,and it also reduces non innovative environment.(Ai and Choudhary AI,2015).

● In the study of “Socio demographic characteristics of school dropout” written by Deepak kumar explains there is need of free and compulsory education upto 14 years of age as per constitution and briefs the handbook of education statistics 2013-14, the students 38.2% enroll in class I but not continue still class x and moreover it was based on socio demographic characteristics for example parents income , illiteracy etc… almost 90% dropout on government school from age 15-18 years . (Deepak,2016)


Methodology

The research method followed here is empirically research .A total of 200 samples here have been taken out of which is taken through convenient sampling. The sample form taken by the researcher through online using google forms .The independent variable taken here is age ,gender and occupation and education .The dependent variables are reason for school dropout, dropout students involved in crime,respondents know any dropout students .The statistical tool used by the researcher is graphical representation and pie chart.


Analysis

Figure:1


According to you, what is the reason for school dropouts.



Legend : This figure deals with reasons for school dropouts with the independent variable gender .


Result : Respondents composed of both male and female answer to the question reasons for school dropouts, male respondents answered 5% on poverty, 8.3% on lack of parents and illiteracy of parents,28.3% on misleading of companion ,5% on migration and female respondents answered 8.3% on poverty ,6.67% on lack of parents and illiteracy of parents,18.3% on misleading companion and 3.3% on migration.

Figure:2


According to you, what is the reason for school dropouts.


Legend : This figure deals with reasons for school dropouts with the independent variable age.


Result : Respondents from various age groups answered the question reasons for school dropouts, the respondents belonging to the age group 18-25 answers 11.67% on poverty , 5% on lack of parents , 21.67% on misleading companions and 1.67% on migration, the respondents belongs to age group 25-35 answers 8.33% on lack of parents and misleading companion, 3.33% on migration, respondents belongs to age group 35-45 answers 3.33% on poverty and lack of parents,illiteracy of parents and migration and 15% on misleading companion, respondents belongs to age group 45-55 answers 1.67 % on lack of parents and misleading companion and respondents belongs to 55 and above age answers 1.67% on illiteracy of parents.


Figure:3


According to you, what is the reason for school dropouts.


Legend : This figure deals with reasons for school dropouts with the independent variable occupation .


Result : Respondents from various occupations answered the question reasons for school dropouts, the student answered 10% on poverty,3.33% on lack of parents and illiteracy of parents, 16.67% on misleading companion and 1.67% on migration, the unemployed answered 1.67% on poverty , lack of parents,migration, 5% on misleading companion,the private sector covers 3.3% of respondents on lack of parents,1.67% on illiteracy of parents and migration and 16.67% on misleading companion, respondents on public sector answers 1.67% on poverty, 6.67% on lack of parents, misleading companion and illiteracy of parents and 3.3% on migration. The respondents on business profession answers 1.67% on poverty, illiteracy of parents,lack of parents.



Figure: 4


According to you, what is the reason for school dropouts.


Legend : This figure deals with reasons for school dropouts with the independent variable Education .


Result : The respondents from different education qualifications answers the reason for school dropouts, respondents completed HSC answered 3.3% on poverty, 5% on illiteracy of parents, 8.3% on misleading companion ,1.67% on migration, respondents completed UG answered 10% on poverty and lack of parents, 1.67% on illiteracy of parents,21.67% on misleading companion, respondents completed PG answered 1.67% on poverty ,5% on lack of parents ,8.33% on illiteracy of parents,15% on misleading companion, 5% on migration, respondents completed PHD answered 1.67% on lack of parents and misleading companion.



Figure:5


On what percentage do you think school dropouts students are involved in crime?


Legend :This figure deals with school dropouts students involved in crime, with the independent variable gender .


Result : Respondents composed of both male and female answer to the question school dropouts students involved in crime , the male respondents 1.67% on 10%-20% , 16.67% on 20%-40%,23.33% on 40%-60%,10% on 60%-80%,5% on 80%-100%,female respondents answered 1.67% on 10%-20%,13.33% on 20%-40% and 40%-60%,11.67% on 60%-80%, 3.3% on 80%-100%.


Figure :6


On what percentage do you think school dropouts are involved in crime?


Legend :This figure deals with school dropouts students involved in crime, with the independent variable Age.


Result : Respondents from various age group answered to the question school dropouts students involved in crime , respondents belongs to 18-25 of age answer 15% of respondents on 20%-40% and 40%-60%,10% of respondents on 60%-80%,3.3% of respondents on 80%-100% and respondents belongs to age group 25 - 35 of age answer 1.67% on 10%-20% and 20%-40%, 6.67% of respondents on 40%-60%,5% of respondents on 60%-80% ,3.33% of respondents on 80%-100% , respondents belongs to age group 35-45 answers 11,67% of respondents on 20%-40%,13.33% of respondents on 40%-60%,1.67% of respondents on 60%-80% and 80%-100% , respondents from age group 45-55 , answers 1.67% on 20%-40% and 40%-60%,5% of respondents on 60%-80%, respondents belongs to 55 and above age answer 1.67% on 10%-20%.



Figure: 7


On what percentage do you think school dropouts are involved in crime?


Legend : This figure deals with do you think school dropouts are involved in crime,with the independent variable occupation .


Result: Respondents from various occupation answered to the question do you think school dropouts are involved in crime, and the respondents belongs to student answers 1.67% of respondents on 10%-20% , 11.67% of respondents on 20%-40% and 40%-60% ,6.67% of respondents on 60%-80% , 3.3% of respondents on 80%-100% , respondents belongs to unemployed answered 1.67% on 10%-40% ,3.33 % of respondents on 40%-60% ,5% of respondents on 60%-80% and 1.67% on 80-100% .the respondents belongs private sector answered 6.67% on 20%-40% and 60%-80% , 8.3% of respondents on 40%-60%, 1.67% of respondents on 80%-100%.respondents belongs to public sector answers 1.67% of respondents on 60%-80% and 80%-100% ,8.33% of respondents on 20%-40%,and 11.67% on 40%-60% .respondents belongs to business answers 1.67% on 20%-40% ,40%-60% and 60%-80%.



Figure :8


On what percentage do you think school dropouts are involved in crime?


Legend : This figure deals with do you think school dropouts are involved in crime ,with the independent variable Education .


Result: Respondents from various qualifications answered to the question do you think school dropouts are involved in crime and the respondents completed to HSC answers 1.67% of respondents on 10%-20% , 6.67% on 20%-40% and 40%-60%, 1.67 % on 60%-80% and 80%-100%. respondents completed to UG answered 1.67% of respondents on 10%-20% , 13.3 % on 20%-40%, 15% on 40%-60% and 10% on 60%-80 and 3.33% on 80%-100% .The respondents completed PG answered 10% on 20%-40% and 60%-80% ,11. 67% of respondents on, 40%-60% and ,3.3% of respondents on 80%-100% , respondents completed PHD answers 3.33% On 40%-60%.



Figure: 9


Do you know someone who was a school dropout?


Legend : This figure deals with someone known by respondents who was school dropout,with the independent variable gender .


Result : Respondents composed of both male and female answered the question someone known by respondents who was school dropout, male respondents answered 11.67% on yes , 20% on no ,25% on maybe and the female respondents answered 11.67% on yes , 18.3% on no and 13.3% on maybe.


Figure :10


Do you know someone who was a school dropout?

Legend : This figure deals with someone known by respondents who was school dropout,with the independent variable Age.


Result :Respondents belonging to various age groups answered the question someone known by respondents who was a school dropout, respondents belongs to age 18-25 answers 11.67% on yes , 16.67% on no , 15% on maybe , respondents belongs to age group 25-35 answers 1.67% on yes, 6.67% on no , 10% on maybe , respondents belongs to age group 35-45 answers 6.67% on yes, 10% on no, 11.67% on maybe , respondents belongs to age group 45-55 answers 3.3% on yes and no , 1.67% on maybe , respondents belongs to age group 55 and above answers 1.67% on no .



Figure: 11


Do you know someone who was a school dropout?




Legend : This figure deals with someone known by respondents who was school dropout,with the independent variable Education.


Result : Respondents belonging to various education qualifications answered to the question someone known by respondents who was a school dropout,

Respondents who completed HSC answers 5% on yes and no , 8.3% on maybe , respondents completed UG answers 13.3% on yes, 15% on no and maybe , respondents completed PG answers 5% on yes, 16.67% on no , 13.3% on maybe , respondents completed PHD , answers 1.67% on no and maybe .



Figure :12


Do you know someone who was a school dropout?


Legend : This figure deals with someone known by respondents who was school dropout,with the pie chart distribution.


Result : Respondents answered questions known by respondents who were school dropouts ,Respondents answered 23.33% on yes, 38.3% on no and 38.3% on maybe .


Figure :13


According to you, what is the reason for school dropouts.


Legend : This figure deals with reasons for school dropouts with the pie chart distribution.


Result : Respondents answered the question reasons for school dropouts, 46.67% on misleading companions , 15% on illiteracy of parents , 16.67% on lack of parents ,13.3% on poverty, 8.3% on migration.



Figure : 14


On what percentage do you think school dropouts are involved in crime?


Legend : This figure deals with do you think school dropouts are involved in crime,with the pie chart distribution.


Result : Respondents answer to the question do you think school dropouts are involved in crime,3.3% of respondents on 10%-20%, 30 % of respondents on 20%-40%,36.67% of respondents on 40%-60%, 21.67% of respondents on 60%-80%, 8.3% of respondents on 80%-100%.


Discussion

Respondents from various age groups,gender , occupations and different qualifications answer the question reason for school dropout as 46.67% on misleading companions followed by 15% on illiteracy of parents , 16.67% on lack of parents ,13.3% on poverty, 8.3% on migration this shows majority of respondents opinionated misleading of friends in wrong way may leads a student to dropout their school , the migration falls lowest because respondents thought it has less contribution for dropout compare to illiteracy of parents that affect on school dropout and lack of parental care. (Figure 1,2,3,4 and 13)

Respondents from various age groups,gender , occupations and different qualifications answer their opinion on school dropouts are involved in crime, 21.67% of respondents on 60%-80%, 8.3% of respondents on 80%-100% this shows most of them answered many involved in crimes after dropout ,36.67% of respondents on 40%-60%,3.3% of respondents on 10%-20%, 30 % of respondents on 20%-40% this shows many also thought they may not involve in crime, this shows the respondents are neutral not all dropout students involved in crime.(Figure 5,6,7,8 and 14)


Respondents from various age groups,gender , occupations and different qualifications answer the question respondents know anyone who is school dropout answers 23.33% on yes, 38.3% on no and 38.3% on maybe , this shows many doesn’t aware or know any dropout students, these maybe due to lack of social interaction or not many students are school dropout, however the reports stand the exist of School dropout, the 23% of respondents answers they know the school dropout students . (Figure 9,10,11,12) .


Limitation

The Major limitation of the study is the sample frame. The sample frame Collected through online platforms like sending mail, sending links via WhatsApp is the limitation of the study, the real field experience is missed out due to corona pandemic. There is no direct interaction with respondents yet another drawback of the research.Collection of data via online platforms is limiting the researcher to collect data from the field.


Conclusion

The school dropout is withdrawn from school , the education is the basic requirement that increase once income , the RTE act 2010 which enhance the enrolment, the main objective is to study the problems of students after dropout , to study the opportunities after dropout and to analyse their economic conditions and study factors leads to school dropout and the findings includes the reason for dropout highest respondents on misleading companion and lack of parental care ,the dropout students involved in crime many answers neutral this shows not all dropout involves in criminal activities,the need of better implementation of schemes and to create awareness about important of education and technology world education is much needed to sustain .


Reference

1. Ai, Latif A. Choudhary, and Latif A. Choudhary AI. “Economic Effects of Student Dropouts: A Comparative Study.” Journal of Global Economics, vol. 03, no. 02, 2015, doi:10.4172/2375-4389.1000137.

2. Deepak, Dey Kumar. “Socio-Demographic Characteristics of School Dropouts in Mahbubnagar District of Telangana State, India.” Artha - Journal of Social Sciences, vol. 15, no. 2, 2016, p. 88, doi:10.12724/ajss.37.6.

3. Dropping Out of High School: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Remediation Strategies. https://www.ets.org/research/policy_research_reports/publications/periodical/2012/jeav. Accessed 22 Mar. 2021.

4. Fernández-Suárez, Asunción, et al. “Risk Factors for School Dropout in a Sample of Juvenile Offenders.” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 7, Frontiers, 2016, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01993.

5. Liu, Weiwei. The Adult Offending and School Dropout Nexus: A Life Course Analysis. Lfb Scholarly Pub Llc, 2013.

6. Lochner, L. “Education and Crime.” International Encyclopedia of Education, 2010, pp. 239–44, doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-044894-7.01229-x.

7. M, Sateesh Gouda, et al. “Factors Leading to School Dropouts in India: An Analysis of National Family Health Survey-3 Data.” IOSR Journal of Research & Method in Education (IOSRJRME), vol. 4, no. 6, 2014, pp. 75–83, doi:10.9790/7388-04637583.

8. [No Title]. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Haroon-Sajjad/publication/266262739_Socio-Economic_Determinants_of_Primary_School_Dropout_Evidence_from_South_East_Delhi_India/links/542bb8590cf29bbc126a967d/Socio-Economic-Determinants-of-Primary-School-Dropout-Evidence-from-South-East-Delhi-India.pdf. Accessed 25 Mar. 2021.

9. Pandey, Gauri. A Comparative Study of Dropouts among Boys and Girls (6-14 Years) in Rural Areas of Aligarh District (Uttar Pradesh). Aligarh, 2012, http://hdl.handle.net/10603/11224.

10. Pandita, Ramesh. “Enrolment & Dropout Percentage among Boys & Girls up to Secondary Level in India: A Comparative Study.” International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences, vol. 49, 2015, pp. 123–34, doi:10.18052/www.scipress.com/ilshs.49.123.

11. Rud, Iryna, et al. “What Drives the Relationship Between Early Criminal Involvement and School Dropout?” Journal of Quantitative Criminology, vol. 34, no. 1, 2018, pp. 139–66, doi:10.1007/s10940-016-9326-5.

12. Sabates, Ricardo, et al. “School Drop out in Bangladesh: Insights Using Panel Data.” International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 33, no. 3, 2013, pp. 225–32, doi:10.1016/j.ijedudev.2012.09.007.

13. Saravanan, A. “Educational Deprivation among Women in Rural Areas: A Study on Valappurnadu Village in Kolli Hills Block of Namakkal District in Tamil Nadu.” HuSS: International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, 2015, doi:10.15613/hijrh/2015/v2i2/92752.

14. Thornberry, Terence P., et al. “The Effect of Dropping out of High School on Subsequent Criminal Behavior.” Criminology; an Interdisciplinary Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, Wiley, Mar. 2006, pp. 3–18.

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