By M. Palani Selvi, B.Sc.,
On 29th July 2020, the New National Education Policy was launched, brought many changes in school and higher education. The NEP was prepared by a panel of experts led by former ISRO chief K.Kasturirangan. The NEP aims to make India a global knowledge superpower. The New NEP will be introduced in this academic year.
The NEP is the guideline for the development of education in India. NEP, 2020 is India's third education policy. It replaces the NEP, 1986, which was in place for 34 years. The first NEP was introduced in 1968 which was drafted by a 17 member Education Commission, headed by the UGC Chairman D.S.Kothari. The second NEP was introduced in 1986 and revised in 1992.
CHANGES BROUGHT BY NEP, 2020
5+3+3+4 structure of school education
The NEP, 1986 brought 10, +2 structures of school education, the new NEP pitches for a '5+3+3+4' structures of school education, 3 to 8 years (foundation stage and also includes pre-school education for children of ages 3 to 5), 8 to 11 (preparatory stage),11 to 14 years (middle-stage), 14 to 18 years (secondary stage). The NEP only provides a broad direction and is not mandatory to follow. Since education is a concurrent subject (both central government and state governments can make law on it)
Three language systems
The new NEP introduced three language systems; the third language learned by the children will be the choices of states. The first and second languages learned by the children will be their native language. Since the NEP is not mandatory to follow, the Tamil Nadu government held that they never follow the three language systems and also stated that they will follow only the two languages system.
Board exams will be conducted as two parts
To reduce the stress of students about their board exams, the exams will be conducted as two parts: Objective and Descriptive. The board exams will be conducted twice in a year and also the exam will promote knowledge application instead of rote learning.
360-degree report cards
The students will get 360-degree report cards; the report cards will not only inform their marks, but also mention their skills and other important points.
New provisions for children with disabilities
The students who are affected by disabilities are unable to complete their education, with the support of educators, the training centres for disabilities and resource centres will be established.
Vocational studies at school level
Every child should learn at least one vocational study such as carpentry, electric work, metalwork, gardening, pottery making etc. during grades 6 to 8. A 10-day bag less period was conducted during grade 6 to 8 to intern with vocational experts.
Education sector to get 6% of GDP, earlier it was 1.7%
The New NEP, 2020 had approved a plan to increase spending on education to 6% of GDP from 1.7% of GDP.
Undergraduate degree courses to have multiple exit options
The undergraduate degree programs will be either 3 or 4 years duration with multiple exit options. According to this plan, if a student exits the program by completed his first year, he will receive a vocational certificate, if he exists by completed his second year, receive an Advanced Diploma if he exists by completed his third year, receive a Bachelor's degree if he exists by completed his fourth year; receive a Bachelor's degree with research.
Best universities to set up campuses in other countries
The top-performing Indian universities will be encouraged to set up their campuses in other countries.
HDR ministry will be renamed as Education Ministry
By the implementation of the new NEP, the Human Resource Development ministry will be renamed as the Education Ministry.
There are 45,000 affiliated colleges are there all over India. The finance autonomy will be given to all 45,000 colleges based on the status of their accreditation.
Coding to be taught
As we are living in the computer era, it is necessary to learn to code. So the coding will be taught to the students from class 6.
The NEP, 2020 proposes sweeping changes including opening up of Indian higher education to foreign universities, by 2030 the minimum degree qualification for teaching will be a 4 year integrated B.Ed. degree, replacing the UGC and the AICTE with the Higher Education Commission of India, the academic credits will be digitally stored in Academic Bank of Credit (ABC), National Scholarship Portal for SC, ST, OBC and other SEDGs students to be expanded, the NEP aims to set up at least one large multidisciplinary institution (institutions that offer undergraduate programs with high-quality teaching and research) in or near every district by 2030 even Engineering Institutions including IITs are going to become multidisciplinary institutions, setting up of a National Research Foundation, free boarding facilities will be built in Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas for socio-economically backward students and discontinuation of the M.Phil programs, the NCC wings in Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools will come under the Ministry of Defence and the students until class 8 preferred to taught in their mother tongue.