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Author: S. Bala Choudhri, IV year of B.A.,LL.B. from Chennai Dr. Ambedkar Government Law College, Pudupakkam

Co-author: M. Anjana, IV year of B.A.,LL.B. from Chennai Dr. Ambedkar Government Law College, Pudupakkam


'The children of today will make India tomorrow. The way we bring them up will determine the future of the country'

- Jawahar Lal Nehru

Every country has various types of educational systems because of their different culture, different ways of approaches, different types of customs, different sets of understanding, different types of government and different ways of thinking. Every country's educational system is special in its different way. Indian's history has been an instrumental Key to some important major fields of education. However, Our Indian education assuredly claimed praise worldwide. But don't be completely happy about this. Because overall general basic education in other countries is given more valuation and preference in comparison to Indian education. Our basic norm is 'Equality', then why our children didn't get an equal way of education through teaching, schools, colleges & universities. Surely they are discriminated against at some point in the name of education. Still a long way to achieve the standard of education. Here we discuss how the Indian education system is varied from other countries' education systems and the need to evolve the Indian education system and Recommendations for developing our education.


Originally in India, Education came under the state list but after the 42nd Constitutional Amendment during the period of emergency in 1976 it was changed to Concurrent list Entry no. 25. Besides India is a signatory to a member of international conventions (i.e) Jomtien Conference 1990, United Nations Conventions on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All (2000), Millennium Development Goals (MDG), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) for children which is binding on its commitment for making education a reality for all children throughout India. Thus, in 2002 December 12, the Constitution was Amended to make education a fundamental right (i.e) Article 21A provides Right to compulsory education for ages 6-14 years and Replaced Article 45 of Directive Principle of State Policy states that, state shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years. And also amended Part IVA, Fundamental duties towards the state–Article 51A to add new duty (i.e) Article 51A(k) duty of parent or guardian to provide education to their child between the age of 6 and 14 years. According to these essential elements, the Right to Education (Amendment) Act, 2020 was enacted to provide for free and compulsory education to all children between the age of 3-18 years before it was 6 to 14 years.

By providing such rights in our Constitution we must understand that child education is significant to every independent child's welfare, country's development in various fields of social, economic and political aspects.


Lack of educational infrastructure

One of the biggest deficiencies in Indian education is facing lack of educational infrastructure. The famous term used by Indian parents is 'A child who learns will learn wherever he is', this is absolutely wrong presumption. Because it is an indisputable fact that first of all the perfect environment should be created for the child to study. The bitter truth is that in India most of the schools were not properly constructed. As of 2022, India will have more than 14L schools. The worrying thing is that, according to the Unified District Information System for Education Plus (UDISE+) report, the 2021-2022, nearly 12,000 government schools among more than 10L government schools in India do not have toilet facilities & 17,989 schools do not have drinking water facilities in India. Just think about how the children are able to study in unhygienic conditions. Hard to say that more than 2L schools do not have library facilities. At the present era of our study where everything is highly dependent on technology in that regard, more than 9L schools do not have functional computer facilities for the students. According to the UDISE+ report, Only 28.55% of government schools have functional computer facilities, while 61.54% of government-aided and 58.5% of private schools have functional computers. The list goes on. Inevitable poverty and people from Marginalised communities force their children to go to government schools which have non availability of facilities and worst infrastructure. It doesn't just stop with schools but also extends to colleges. Many colleges' infrastructure is under developing conditions. Nothing to laugh at, Some of the government colleges don't acquire the status of colleges; it looks like schools.


I don't say that this is good or bad, according to the United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organizations (UNESCO) report 2018, over 5 million international students across the world and 7,50,000 students from India pursued foreign education. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number fell by reaching 2,59,655 in 2020. Over 6 lakh Indians went to study abroad in 2022, According to data presented by the Union education department in the Rajya Sabha. Reasons for Indian students pursuing foreign education :

As a student we like more practical types of learning than theoretical types of learning.

Other reasons

● Getting foreign degree.

● Getting practice learning skills.

● Getting international work experience.

● Gain a wonderful experience.

● More scholarship facilities provide for students

● They get ultra-advanced research facilities.

● Helps to communicate english confidentially.

● Students can widen their connections.

● Gain more confidence.

● Students can learn about different cultures and develop cross cultural awareness.

● They can explore their exposures.


Education system hasn't changed much after independence. In India education is formality, the part of routine in students' lives. It does not focus on learning something new. In India education is a part of business.With the diversity of education we face inferiority complex situations among other students.The reason for the lack of an educational system is mostly affected by wrong assumptions by the people. Those are,

1. Students' IQ cannot be determined by their grades.

2. Only students who have a 90% score are regarded as intelligent.

3. People encourage rote learning methods instead of understanding methods.

4. Students are admitted into streams that have a higher pay scale or higher number of jobs. Not given importance to their child's talents.

5. Extracurricular activities will spoil their child's education.


Coming years,in the competitive world we need to shape our education system.

● The standard of existing schools should be raised.

● Creating a better environment for students to achieve their goals.

● More Practical types of learning in all fields.

● Improve uniform methods across the country.

● Create awareness towards the people about how important child education is and their duties towards their child and their child's rights.

● Less grading method. More extracurricular methods.

● Under Article 21A and Right to Education Act, 2009 provides compulsory education for children between the age of 3-18 years. It was a vain childhood.

● All classes of people need to obtain education.

● As long as possible the government tries to provide an equal standard of education among all children across the country. It helps to reduce inferiority complex amongst students while they pursue education at the same level.

● In India students are pushed to memorise facts and figures. It does not help to improve their knowledge. So that teaching method needs to change.

● In the technological era schools and universities try to give more efficient methods of learning like 3D animation class if needed, computer based learning etc.

● Promote extracurricular activities, give separate time for pursuing those.

● Government schools help the students to improve their communication skills. So provide special classes.

● Provide library facilities at primary school level.

● Promote entrance exams in all levels of Higher education so that all classes of people can get their seats by way of rank.


'Children are like buds in a garden and should be carefully and lovingly nurtured, as they are the future of the nation and the citizens of tomorrow.'

- Jawahar Lal Nehru

Remember those words. So that we need to feed them with knowledge. With the help of our government policies. Make the students with courage to tackle all the situations in the competitive world. However, having National Education Policy, 2020, there is a need among states to adopt it for the welfare of the children. Thus, every child getting their fundamental right guaranteed under Article 21A. Every government action needs to reach all levels of people across the country. So the government tries to create awareness about education and their rights. Pillars of our nation are children. So must provide proper education with capable environment to access their rights.


7. Latest Schools, Students and Teachers Statistics in India–

8. Legal Service India -



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