NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 2020
Author: Alisha Singh, II year of B.A.,LL.B. from Lloyd Law College, Greater Noida
Education is the basic essential which every human gets for their development[i]. It also helps in developing an equitable and just society and promoting national development.
Education leads to the growth of a student which in turns leads to the country’s growth and also economic growth. Therefore, it is important to provide quality education to all the students of the country. Providing high-quality education is the best way forward for developing and maximizing our country’s rich talents and resources for the good of the individual, the society, the country and the world.
India will have the highest population of young people in the world over the next decade, so we can provide quality education opportunities to young people that will determine the future of our country.
The agenda for global education development is reflected in the Goal 4 (SDG4) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by India in 2015- seeks to “ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and also to promote lifelong learning opportunities for all” by 2030. The entire education system needs to be reformed for such a high goal so that all of the critical targets and goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be achieved. [ii]
The world is growing at a faster rate and seeing a lot of changes with the advancement in technologies such as the rise of big data, machine learning, Artificial Intelligence. There will be greater demand for skilled labourers for it. Also, there is a lot of change in the climate, increase in pollution and depletion of natural resources, there will be a need for a skilled workforce in the field of physics, biology, agriculture, climate science etc. to solve the problems related to these fields.
Everything is becoming critical and advanced in the field of knowledge, so education must move towards learning how to think critically and solve problems, how to innovate and adapt, how to be creative and able to do multiple tasks. To develop all these qualities in a student the education sector should include subjects like crafts, basic arts, humanities, arts, sports, languages, culture and values in addition to physics, mathematics etc.
WHAT IS NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 2020?
National Education Policy 2020 (NEP). It is the policy which is created by the government of India to promote education amongst India’s people. NEP is formulated for the development of education in the country.
In 1964, the first time it was felt that there is a need for a policy for the education system. So in 1964, a 17-member education commission headed by then UGC chairperson DS Kothari was constituted to draft a national and coordinated policy on education.[iii]
Based on the recommendations of this committee, parliament passed the 1st education policy in 1968. Till date, there are 3 NEP in our country. First came in 1968 under Indira Gandhi, 2nd came in 1986 under Rajiv Gandhi and the NEP of 1986 was revised in 1992 when PN Narasimha was Prime Minister. The 3rd is the NEP, 2020 released under the PM of our country, Narendra Modi.
The Ministry of Human Resource Development constituted a committee for Draft National Education Policy(NEP), in June 2017. The committee was headed by Dr. K. Kasturirangan submitted its report on 31 May 2019. Then the draft was shared by the ministry of human resource development (MHRD) from public comment. And finally, it was approved by the cabinet in 2020.[iv]
SOME OF THE BIGGEST CHANGES IN THE NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY, 2020
There should be a single regulator for higher education institutions.
There will be multiple entries and exit options in degree courses.
Discontinuation of MPhil programmes.
Low stakes board exams.
Also, there will be common entrance exams for universities.[v]
PRINCIPLES OF NATIONAL EDUCATION POLICY 2020
The main aim of the education system is to develop human beings as a good citizen of the country capable of thinking rationally, creative imagination, multitasking, possess good values, morals and ethics. It also aims at involving young people in producing, generating and contributing in building an equitable, inclusive and plural society as envisaged by our constitution. [vi]
A good educational institution is one which provides a good and safe environment for students to learn. It also welcomes every student without discrimination & gives all the facilities to every student so that they can learn and incorporate all the skills and abilities in them. Good infrastructure and appropriate resources conclusive to learning are available in a good institution.
The fundamental principles that will guide both the education system at large, as well as the individual institutions within it are:
First, we have to recognize, identify and foster the unique capabilities of each student by sensitizing teachers as well as parents to promote each student’s holistic development in both academic and non-academic spheres.
More focus on conceptual understanding rather than rote learning and learning-for-exams.
Learning life skills such as communication, cooperation, teamwork and resilience.
Use of technology in teaching and learning, removing language barriers, increasing access for divyang students, and educational planning and management.
There should be ethics, human and constitutional values like empathy, respect for others, cleanliness, respect for public property, responsibility, equality & justice.
Teachers and faculty should get positive working environments and service conditions, continuous professional development, and recruitment. [vii]
KEY FEATURES OF NEP 2020
1.NEP 2020 aims at universalization of education with 100% Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) from preschool to secondary level in school education by 2020.
2.It will bring 2 core out of school children back into the mainstream through the open schooling system.
3.The current 10+2 system will be classified by a new 5+3+3+4 curricular structure corresponding to ages 3-8, 8-11, 11-14, and 14-18 years respectively. This new system will bring the children of age-group 3-6 years under the school curriculum, which has been recognized as the crucial stage for the development of mental faculties of a child, all around the world. The system will have 12 years of schooling with three years of Anganwadi also called pre-schooling.
4.NEP 2020, will aim at bridging the gap between academic streams, extracurricular, vocational streams in school. The students from class 6 will have Vocational Education with internships.
5.Now the students can choose their respective favourite subjects from class 8 to 12 so that they will be provided with a platform to do specialization in the subjects they have chosen.
6.Students will be learning in their mother tongue or regional language till grade 5. No language will be imposed on them.
7.There will be a formulation of a new & comprehensive National Curriculum Framework for Teacher Education, NCFTE 2021, by the NCTE in consultation with NCERT. The minimum degree of qualification for teaching will be increased to 4-year integrated B.ED. degree.
8.Report card will be comprehensive based on skill as well as capabilities.[viii]
1. There will be an increase in Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education to 50% by 2035, 3.5 crore seats to be added in higher education.
2.Academic Bank of credits will be set up to facilitate Transfer of Credits. This will help in multiple entry and exits in the higher education sector so that students will be allowed to take a sabbatical and then join back their studies after a while without losing any credits.
3.Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs), at par with IITs, IIMs, to be set up as models of best multidisciplinary education of global standards in the country.
4.Various entry/exit to be allowed with relevant certification.
5.Higher Education Commission of India (HECI) will be established for the entire higher education, excluding medical and legal education, and UGC & AICTE will be merged as one body.
6.To foster a strong research culture and building research capacity across higher education, National Research Foundation will be created as an apex body.
7.Under this system, an undergraduate degree will be of either 3 or 4-year duration with multiple exits and entry options within the specified period.
8.Public investment in education to reach 6% of GDP at the earliest.[ix]
BENEFITS OF NEP,2020
The new National Education Policy, 202 aims at student’s practical knowledge instead of just pushing them towards rote learning.
This will help students to develop scientific temper from a very young age of a child.
NEP 2020, will make it easy to set up new quality higher educational institutes which will be at par with the global standards.
NEP will allow foreign colleges to set up their campuses in India without any problem so that the students who are unable to go abroad due to various reasons will be able to experiences it and get global exposure.[x]
National Education Policy (2020) is a big step towards the education system in India. Many new things have been added in the NEP 2020, and also modified by replacing the 34-year old national education policy.
NEP 2020, will help in building a strong education system in India. As education plays an important role in improving and balancing the country’s socio-economic framework. So it is the responsibility and duty of a nation to provide all the facilities to a child so that he can learn and grow in a healthy environment.
NEP 2020, provides every facility which is needed to improve the skills of a child and help them to gain knowledge and develop critical thinking, and also they become capable enough to compete at the global level.
Among all the other two education policies, NEP 2020, is the best policy in India. It provides you with a platform where the youth of our country can learn and grow efficiently and also more and more children will be involved in studies. Government has taken a good step for the education of our youth. As it is said that Youth is the future of our nation.
It is a good tool gifted by our country to learn and succeed in life.