Brain Booster Articles
MAN'S BRAIN IN MACHINE
Author: Sushmitha. J, V year of B.B.A.,LL.B. from Prist University- School of Law
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically requires human intelligence.
AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approachesaimed at automating tasksin a need of human intelligence. And a unique innovation as an artificial entity aids to solve complicated problems. Both Computer science and Physiology are combined in Artificial Intelligence.
AI progress becomesexpeditious more robots and autonomous systems will be created replacing the human labour. AI has upperhand and benefits as its with numerous applications that would lead this planet a greater place to live. AI greatly increases the efficiency of the existing economyas its one of the fastest-growing technology that makes human life effortless by providing solutions for complex problems and even helpful in bringing different opportunities for everyone, hence been a demanding technology in the market.
On the other hand It is anticipated that AIs will affect almost everything connected to human life such as ethics, privacy, economy, employment, etc. The questionthat’s constantly raising in everyone’s head is abouthow to ensure itssafety in working by not causing harm to human beings and other creatures. Besides how they differ from human beings in matters concerning ethical issues associated with privacy and confidentiality.
AI is everywhere and Many of us already live and encounter it everyday, without us being aware of it. An increasing number of technological developments that we use in our day to day lives are based on AI such as from Apple’s Siri, Amazon’s Alexa, chatbots, Netflix, streaming services ,maps, taxi service to development of self-driving cars etc.
Some gives assumption that it will save workload and humanity, and others predict it will destroys us. Either way, if it happens, the world will be changed forever.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence(AI), machine, role, technology,Strength and weakness.
“Artificial Intelligence- The Future is Here”
Artificial Intelligence is all about developing intelligent machines that can Simulate the human brain and work & behave like human Beings. The intelligence possessed by the machines under which they can perform various functions with human help. Artificial intelligence is a process of making computers, robots or software that can think intellectually like a human brain.
Artificial Intelligence is a combination of two words Artificial and Intelligence, which refers to man-made Intelligence. Therefore, when machines are equipped With man-made intelligence to perform intelligent tasks Similar to humans, it is known as Artificial Intelligence.
Artificial intelligence (AI), also referred to as machine intelligence, is the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behaviour, With the help of A.I, machines will be able to learn, solve problems, plan things, think, etc. Artificial Intelligence, for example, is the simulation of human intelligence by machines. In the field of technology, Artificial Intelligence is evolving rapidly day by day and it is believed that in the near future, artificial intelligence is drastically changing the human life.
Artificial intelligence is the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.
The researchers in the field of Al are much older. It is said that the concept of intelligent machines was found in Greek Mythology. In the year 1943, Warren McCulloch and Walter pitsProposed a model of Artificial neurons. In the year 1950, Alan Turing published a “Computer Machinery and Intelligence” paper in which he introduced a test, known as a Turing Test. This test isUsed to determine intelligence in machines byChecking if the machine is capable of thinking or not.
1956- for the first time, the term Artificial Intelligence was coined by the American Computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference. John McCarthy is also known as the Father of Al. Artificial intelligence is enhancing the ability of machines to make it perform in the same way as human beings.they make the work easier, further helping to resolve a problem in a human way.
1972- the first full-scale intelligentHumanoid robot, WABOT1, was created in Japan. . In the year 1980, Al came with the evolution of Expert Systems. These systems are computer programs, which are designed to solve complex problems.
1997 – Supercomputer ‘Deep Blue’ was designed, and it defeated the world champion chess player in a match. It was a massive milestone by IBM to create this large computer.
2000: Professor Cynthia Breazeal developed the first robot that could simulate human emotions with its face,which included eyes, eyebrows, ears, and a mouth. It was called Kismet.
2002 – The first commercially successful robotic vacuum cleaner was created and The first Roomba was released.
2003: Nasa landed two rovers onto Mars (Spirit and Opportunity) and they navigated the surface of the planet without human intervention.
2006: Companies such as Twitter, Facebook, and Netflix started utilizing AI as a part of their advertising and user experience (UX) algorithms.
2010: Microsoft launched the Xbox 360 Kinect, the first gaming hardware designed to track body movement and translate it into gaming directions.
2011: Apple released Siri, the first popular virtual assistant.
2014: Microsoft released Cortana, their version of a virtual assistant similar to Siri on iOS. Amazon created Amazon Alexa, a home assistant that developed into smart speakers that function as personal assistants.
2016: Hanson Robotics created a humanoid robot named Sophia, who became known as the first “robot citizen” and was the first robot created with a realistic human appearance and the ability to see and replicate emotions, as well as to communicate.
2017: Facebook programmed two AI chatbots to converse and learn how to negotiate, but as they went back and forth they ended up forgoing English and developing their own language, completely autonomously.
2018: Samsung introduced Bixby, a virtual assistant. Bixby’s functions include Voice, where the user can speak to and ask questions, recommendations, and suggestions; Vision, where Bixby’s “seeing” ability is built into the camera app and can see what the user sees (i.e. object identification, search, purchase, translation, landmark recognition); and Home, where Bixby uses app-based information to help utilize and interact with the user (e.g. weather and fitness applications.) A Chinese tech group called Alibaba’s language-processing AI beat human intellect on a Stanford reading and comprehension test.
2019: Google’s AlphaStar reached Grandmaster on the video game StarCraft 2, outperforming all but .2% of human players.
2020: OpenAI started beta testing GPT-3, a model that uses Deep Learning to create code, poetry, and other such language and writing tasks. While not the first of its kind, it is the first that creates content almost indistinguishable from those created by humans. Baidu releases the LinearFold AI algorithm to medical and scientific and medical teams developing a vaccine during the early stages of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. The algorithm can predict the RNA sequence of the virus in only 27 seconds, which is 120 times faster than other methods.
2021: OpenAI developed DALL-E, which can process and understand images enough to produce accurate captions, moving AI one step closer to understanding the visual world.
2022- Operational AI, Model Ops, AI cloud, Smart robots, Natural language processing, Automotive vehicles. Intelligent applications and computer vision.
Including playing Atari, captioning images and using a robotic arm to stack blocks.
Importance of AI
Machine or software intelligence is referred to as artificial intelligence.
Perceive + Analyse + React = Intelligence.
Artificial intelligence is a subject of computer science that is rapidly gaining popularity since it has improved human existence in a variety of ways.
Artificial intelligence has substantially enhanced the performance of manufacturing and service systems during the previous two decades.
Prior to the current wave of AI, it would have been hard to imagine using computer software to connect riders to taxis, but today Uber has become one of the largest companies in the world by doing just that. It utilizes sophisticated machine learning algorithms to predict when people are likely to need rides in certain areas, which helps proactively get drivers on the road before they’re needed. As another example, Google has become one of the largest players for a range of online services by using machine learning to understand how people use their services and then improving them.
Artificial intelligence forms the basis for all computer learning and is the future of all complex decision making. Today’s largest and most successful enterprises have used AI to improve their operations and gain advantage on their competitors.
It enables human capabilities by understanding, reasoning, planning, communication and perception and to be undertaken by software increasingly effectively, efficiently and at low cost.AI can be applied to every sector to enable new possibilities and efficiencies.
“Artificial intelligence is about replacing human decision making with more sophisticated technologies.” – Falguni Desai.
CATEGORIES OF AI
REACTIVE- Has no memory, only responds to different stimuli. An example of Reactive AI is the famous IBM Chess program that beat the world champion, Garry Kasparov
LIMITED MEMORY- Uses memory to learn and improve its responses. For example, self-driving cars use sensors to identify civilians crossing the road, steep roads, traffic signals and so on to make better driving decisions. This helps to prevent any future accidents.
THEORY OF MIND- Understands the needs of other intelligent entities. This has not yet been fully developed but rigorous research is happening in this area.
SELF-AWARE-Has human-like intelligence and self-awareness.
Branches Of Artifical Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence can be used to solve real-world problems by implementing the following processes/ techniques:
Machine Learning - the science of getting machines to interpret, process and analyze data in order to solve real-world problems.There are three types of machine learning algorithms:
Supervised learning- Data sets are labeled so that patterns can be detected and used to label new data sets.
Unsupervised learning- Data sets aren’t labeled and are sorted according to similarities or differences.
Reinforcement learning- Data sets aren’t labeled but, after performing an action or several actions, the AI system is given feedback.
2. Natural Language Processing - the science of drawing insights from natural human language in order to communicate with machines and grow businesses. Ex: Twitter uses NLP to filter out terroristic language in their tweets, Amazon uses NLP to understand customer reviews and improve user experience.
3. DeepLearning - Deep Learning is an advanced field of Machine Learning that can be used to solve more advanced problems. Ex: face verification algorithm on Facebook, self-driving cars, virtual assistants like Siri, Alexa etc.
4. Expert Systems - an AI-based computer system that learns and reciprocates the decision-making ability of a human expert. Ex: information management, medical facilities, loan analysis, virus detection
5. Fuzzy Logic- Fuzzy logic is a computing approach based on the principles of “degrees of truth” instead of the usual modern computer logic i.e. boolean in nature. Ex- automatic gearboxes, vehicle environment control and in medical field to solve complex problems,
6. Robotics- focuses on different branches and application of robots. AI Robots are artificial agents acting in a real-world environment to produce results by taking accountable actions. Ex: Sophia the humanoid
TYPES OF AI
Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI)- Also known as Weak AI, ANI is the stage of Artificial Intelligence involving machines which can perform only a narrowly defined set of specific tasks. At this stage, the machine does not possess any thinking ability, it just performs a pre-defined set of functions. Examples- Siri, Alexa, Self-driving cars, Alpha-Go, Sophia the humanoid and so on. Almost all the AI-based systems built till this date fall under the category of Weak AI.
Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)-Also known as Strong AI, AGI is the stage in the evolution of Artificial Intelligence wherein machines will possess the ability to think and make decisionslikehuman being. Strong AI is considered as a threat to human existence by many scientists.
Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)- It is the stage of Artificial Intelligence when the capability of computers will surpass human beings. ASI is a hypothetical situation presently depicted in movies, sci-fi books, where machines have taken control over the world.
“ Our intelligence is what makes us human, and AI is an extension of that quality.” – Yann LeCun
Al has the potential to cross the boundaries of capital and labour and open up new sources of value and growth.
The advantages of Artificial intelligence applications are enormous and can revolutionize any professional sector.
Reduction in Human Error like in Weather Forecasting using AI they have reduced the majority of human error.
Available 24x7 like Educational Institutes and Helpline centre’s are getting many queries and issues which can be handled effectively using AI.
Helping in Repetitive Jobs example in banks, we often see many verifications of documents to get a loan which is a repetitive task for the owner Using AI Cognitive Automation the owner can speed up the process for verifying the documents by which both the customers and the owner will be benefited.
Takes risks instead of Humans AI Robot which can do the risky things for us like going to mars, defuse a bomb, explore the deepest parts of oceans, mining for coal and oil, it can be used effectively in any kind of natural or man-made disasters.
Daily applications such as Apple’s Siri, Window’s Cortana, OKGoogle are frequently used in our daily routine whether it is for searching a location, taking a selfie, making a phone call, replying to a mail and many more.
Digital Assistance in case of Using AI the organizations can set up a Voice bot or Chatbot which can help customers with all their queries.
The advantages of Artificial Intelligence also include planning, learning, reasoning and problem-solving abilities. Human intelligence stimulated Artificial Intelligence as an effective way to substitute automation of machines. Al is the fastest growing field in terms of technology and Innovation. As every bright side has a darker version in Below are the Cons of AI.
“The future is ours to shape. I feel we are in a race that we need to win. A race between the growing power of the technology and the growing wisdom we need to manage it.” -Max Tegmark
Artificial Intelligence is becoming the synonym for future. In a world dominated by machines, machine minds and machine hearts, everything is based on technology. To gain control over technology is the task of Artificial Intelligence. Created with extraordinary human intelligence, Artificial Intelligence or Al is a substitute for tasks that could be done with combined human efforts and machine involvement. No wonder that this phenomena will rule the future, as every little aspect in the field of everyday technology is affected by Al in one way or another.
Lacking Out of Box Thinking
No matter how smart a machine becomes, it can never replicate a human. Machines are rational but, very inhuman as they don’t possess emotions and moral values.
Creativity is not the key for AI as Machines can’t be creative. They can only do what they are being taught or commanded.They can never match the power of human brain.
Ethics and morality are important human features that can be difficult to incorporate into an AI.
ROLE OF AI IN EACH FIELD
AI Applications are found in various domains. There are a number of industries which are on the verge of transformation by AI .
Artificial Intelligence has a major role to play in driving a food revolution and meeting the increased demand for food. Applied Artificial Intelligence addresses challenges such as lack of assured irrigation, inadequate demand prediction, excess use of pesticides, fertilizers, and fungicides. Some uses include better crop production through detecting pest attacks, forecasting crop prices, and real-time advice.
It can enable flexible and adaptable technical systems to facilitate various processes and machinery to respond to unfamiliar or unpredictable situations by making “smart decisions” through flexible and adaptable technical systems. Areas of influence include engineering, supply chain management, production, maintenance, quality assurance, and plant logistics and warehousing.
Automobile- At this stage where automobiles changing from an engine with a chassis around it to a software-controlled intelligent machine, the role of AI cannot be underestimated. The goal of self-driving cars, during which Autopilot by Tesla has been the frontrunner, takes up data from all the Tesla’s running on the road and uses it in machine learning algorithms.
Gaming-In the gaming industry also , computer game Systems powered by AI is ushering us into a replacement era of immersive experience in gaming.AI has also been playing a huge role in creating video games and making it more tailored to players’ preferences.
Matthew Guzdial from the University of Alberta and his team are working towards leveraging AI’s power to assist video gamers create the precise game that they need to play.
Artificial Intelligence plays an important role in the field of healthcare by addressing issues of high barriers, particularly in rural areas that lack poor communication and a professional healthcare system. Some of the emerging applications include AI-driven diagnostics, personalized treatment, early detection of potential epidemics, and imaging diagnostics.
Surveillance- AI has made it possible to develop face recognition Tools which may be used for surveillance and security purposes.Manual monitoring of a CCTV camera requires constant human intervention so they’re prone to errors and fatigue. AI-based surveillance is automated and works 24/7, providing real-time insights.
According to a report by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, a minimum of 75 out of the 176 countries are using AI tools for surveillance purposes.
Being one of the early adopters of Artificial Intelligence solutions, it provides applications such as developing user experience by personalized suggestions, image-based product search, and preference-based browsing.
Education and Skilling- Artificial Intelligence provides the need for student intervention to provide solutions to quality and accessibility issues in the Indian education sector and enhance the learning experience through personalized learning, automate and expedite administrative tasks, and reduce dropouts.
Banking and Finance- One of the early adopter of Artificial Intelligence is the Banking and Finance Industry. Features like AI bots, digital payment advisers and biometric fraud detection mechanisms cause higher quality of services to a wider customer base.
The adoption of AI in banking is constant to rework companies within the industry, provide greater levels useful and more personalized experiences to their customers, reduce risks as well as increase opportunities involving financial engines of our modern economy.
The incorporation of applied Artificial Intelligence in developing cities could also help in meeting the demands of a rapidly growing population and providing them with enhanced quality of life. Traffics control for reducing congestion enhanced security by providing improved crowd management are some of the potential uses of Artificial Intelligence systems.
Space Exploration: AI systems are being developed to scale back the danger of human life that venture into the vast realms of the undiscovered and unraveled universe which is a very risky task that the astronauts need to take up. Has helped us discover numerous exoplanets, stars, galaxies, and more recently, two new planets in our very own system.
Entertainment- The show business , with the arrival of online streaming services like Netflix and Amazon Prime, relies heavily on the info collected by the users.With new contents being created every minute , it is very difficult to classify them and making them easier to search.
AI tools analyze the contents of videos frame by frame and identify objects to feature appropriate tags. AI is additionally helping media companies to form strategic decisions.
E-Commerce- This is one of the Artificial Intelligence Applications that’s found to be widely used. E-commerce retailers are increasingly turning towards chatbots or digital assistants to supply 24×7 support to their online buyers. Built using AI technologies, chatbots are becoming more intuitive and are enabling a far better customer experience.
AI in Judiciary
Recently, the Law Minister has said that for implementing phase two of the eCourts project, there is a need to adopt new, cutting edge technologies of Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) to increase the efficiency of the justice delivery system.
Also, to explore the use of AI in the judicial domain, the Supreme Court of India has constituted an Artificial Intelligence Committee.The committee has identified application of AI technology in Translation of judicial documents, Legal research assistance and Process automation.
Whether Advocates are being replaced by AI?
NO AI can never replace advocate
Artificial Intelligence IS MAN WITH MACHINE And NOT MAN VS. MACHINE
AI acts only on the basis of the given data and the merits of the facts. It cannot manipulate such data. All AI can do, is to aid the lawyers, judges, magistrates or law students, to achieve a data driven result in a expeditious and inexpensive manner. It takes real humans to actually argue in the court and it is not a task that automated software can perform. AI is not replacing lawyers or rendering them out of jobs.
Artificial Intelligence and law mainly deal with the application of algorithms to make law more logical, convenient and probable.
Pendency of Cases: The recent National Judicial Data Grid (NJDG) shows that 3,89,41,148 cases are pending at the District and Taluka levels and 58,43,113 are still unresolved at the high courts. AI helps solving casesexpeditiously.
Focus more on complex problems
Making decisions for complex problems
Better skill development
Efficiency in document review
Algorithms based prediction
Drafting and contract analysis
Infringement of data privacy. Everything digital is subject to gross data privacy issues.
No ethical values will be followed.
The more autonomous softwares becomes, the tougher it will be for humans to handle those softwares and the results that they produce. AI cannot take over the liability.
No legal identity
Only acts on what is fed, cannot act spontaneously according to the situation and circumstances.
Examples of AI used in judicial field
Virtual Hearing: Over the course of the Covid-19 pandemic, the use of technology for e-filing, and virtual hearings has seen a dramatic rise.
SUVAS (Supreme Court Vidhik Anuvaad Software): It is an AI system that can assist in the translation of judgments into regional languages.Which is easier to explain for a person of different languages.
SUPACE (Supreme Court Portal for Assistance in Court Efficiency): It was recently launched anfd Designed to first understand judicial processes that require automation, it then assists the Court in improving efficiency and reducing pendency being automated through AI.
UNDER INDIAN CONSTITUTION
Under Article 21 of the Constitution, the ‘right to life and personal liberty’ In the leading case of R Rajagopal v. State of Tamil Nadu, the right to privacy was held to be implicit under Article 21 and is relevant with addressing privacy issues arising out of AI in processing personal data. Further, in the landmark case of K.S. Puttaswamy v. Union of India, the Supreme Court emphasised the need for a comprehensive legislative framework for data protection, which shall be competent to govern emerging issues such as the use of AI in India. AI may also be unfair and discriminatory and will attract Articles 14 and 15, which deal with the right to equality and right against discrimination respectively to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens.
UNDER THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT, 2019
Section 83 of this Act entitles a complainant to bring an action against a manufacturer or service provider or seller of a product for any harm caused because of defective product. This establishes liability for the manufacturer or seller of an AI entity for harm caused by it.
UNDER THE PATENT ACT,1970
Patentability of AI, inventorship, ownership and liability for AI’s acts/omissions, are some of the main issues with regard to AI. Section 6 r/w Section 2(1)(y) of the Act does not specifically mandate that ‘person’ must be a natural person, At present, AIL has not been granted legal personhood and would not fall within the scope of the act.
UNDER THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACT, 2000
Section 43A of this Act imposes liability on a body corporate, dealing with sensitive personal data, to pay compensation when it fails to adhere to reasonable security practices. This has a significant bearing in determining the liability a body corporate when it employs AI to store and process sensitive personal data.
UNDER TORT LAW
The principles of vicarious liability and strict liability are relevant to the determination of liability for wrongful acts or omissions of AI. In the case of Harish Chandra v. Emperor, the court laid down that there is no vicarious liability in criminal law as one’s wrongful acts if the AI entity may be considered as an agent.
UNDER THE PERSONAL DATA PROTECTION BILL, 2019
The processing of personal data of Indian citizens by public and private bodies located within and outside India is regulated in this bill. ‘consent’ for processing of such data by data fiduciaries, subject to certain exemptions. When enacted into law, this bill will affect the wide application of AI software that collects user information from various online sources to track the Consumer details relating to purchase, online content, finance etc.
AI has already impacted lives of people in various fields and will surely continue to do more in the future. It’s still on the rise. Many organizations are using AI to enhance their user experience, performance, or efficiency. We cannot totally depend on a machine to replace human source. It is necessity of using within limits as probably AI is the fastest-growing development in the World of technology and innovation. Thus, we should handle and shape our future in most secure and safe way by taking over their benefits. Every new invention has some positive and negative aspects but we must use the positive aspects of the invention to create a better world.
“The Potentialbenefits ofArtificial Intelligence are huge, soare the dangers”
Indian Constitutional Law by M.P.Jain
Artificial Intelligence and Law
Aggarwal’s Artificial Intelligence
Information Technology Act,2000- BARE Act
Artificial Intelligence a modern approach