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Author: Palak Jain, V year of B.B.A.,LL.B. from Career Point University Kota Rajasthan


As from 18th to the 21st of February 2019, formal conferences on the case's benefits were held. The court first explained the premise of the matter in its judgement on July 17, 2019, before assuming that it had jurisdiction to hear India's complaints based on alleged violations of the Vienna Convention.

The Kulbhushan Jadhav issue was among the most contentious cases before the International Court of Justice, including India and Pakistan as parties (ICJ). After quitting from the Navy, Jadhav was caught in Iran, where he had business interests, according to the Indian side. In the International Court of Justice, India put Pakistan's choice to the test.


On May 8, 2017, India filed a continuing application against Pakistan, alleging a violation of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 24 April 1963 "in the matter of the detention and preliminary of an Indian citizen, Mr. Kulbhushan Sudhir Jadhav," who had been sentenced to death by a military court in Pakistan in April 2017. India guaranteed that Pakistan had failed to quickly notify it of the arrest and detention of its citizens[1]. It also argued that Mr. Jadhav had not been informed of his rights under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, that India's foreign office authorities had been refused entry to Mr. Jadhav when he was still in care and protection, detention, and prison, and also that Mr. Jadhav would not have been informed of his rights under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on The Law.He had not been able to chat and contrast with him, nor had he been able to devise his genuine representation. India cited Article 36, section 1 of the Statute of the Court and Article I of the Optional Protocol to the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations for the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes in its Application as justifications for the Court's judgement.

About the same moment, India filed a Request for Signing of Temporary Measures, requesting that the Court direct Pakistan to "take all appropriate precautions to ensure that Mr. Kulbhushan Sudhir Jadhav is not executed" and to "ensure that no move is made that may prejudice the Republic of India's or Mr. Kulbhushan Sudhir Jadhav's rights regarding any recent judgment could produce on the merits of the case."

By a notification issued May 18, 2017, the Supreme Court directed Pakistan to "take all means available to it" to ensure that Mr. Jadhav would not be executed before a final decision on the case, and to inform the Court of any actions taken in reliance on that Order. From the 18th to the 21st of February 2019, formal sessions on the case's advantages were held. The Court first explained the premise of the dispute in its judgement on July 17, 2019, before assuming that it had jurisdiction to hear India's complaints based on alleged violations of the Vienna Convention. The Court next addressed Pakistan's four objections with tolerance, which were based on India's alleged mistreatment of cycle, rights, and illegal lead. India's petition was found to be admissible by the Tribunal.

When it came to the merits of the case, the Court examined each of Pakistan's three challenges about the Vienna Convention's applicability. The Court found that none of Pakistan's claims could be sustained, thus it dismissed them.

The Court next considered India's argument that Pakistan had violated its obligations under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention by failing to notify India of Mr. Jadhav's detention promptly. The Judge concluded that Pakistan had breached its promise under that agreement because it did not oppose India's assertion that Mr. Jadhav had not been schooled of his entitlements under Article 36, paragraph 1 (b) of the Agreement[2].

Recent News

As according Pakistani media sources, the Pakistani government has given Jadhav a second consular visa after a Pakistani military court sentenced him to death in April 2017 on allegations of "reconnaissance and psychological harassment."Jadhav, on the other hand, will continue to pursue the President's compassion request. India is in a bind as a result of his decision to withhold rights for a survey request.India said that Pakistan had given Jadhav a meaningful preliminary hearing. The military trial then after Jadhav is sentenced to death was a fraud, according to Harish Salve, India's official advisor for the matter before the International Court of Justice.Despite the fact that Pakistan had violated Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (VCCR), the ICJ stated that "it is not the conviction and sentencing of Mr. Jadhav to be construed as an infringement of Article 36 of the Vienna Convention.

From a variety of perspectives, this situation was remarkable for India. Since Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru presented the Kashmir case to the United Nations Security Council in 1948, India has worked hard to prevent "internationalisation" of bilateral disputes, particularly with Pakistan. The fact that India brought the Jadhav issue to the International Court of Justice had a number of repercussions.However, the Indian argument has been a distinctly ready and determinedly contested one based on a simple request - Jadhav's admission. Second, India needed to ensure that this case just wouldn't give Pakistan an opportunity to use the ICJ course on other problems such as India or water able to share in the Indus[3].

The statute set a 60-day deadline for Jadhav, his family, or the Indian high commission in Islamabad to file an appeal. Jadhav, who was invited to record a survey request on June 17, is unable to do so. He was also given assistance with genuine portrayal, which Jadhav declined[4].

His unwillingness to file an audit appeal supports the narrative that Pakistan has chosen to tell. Outside portrayal had been postponed by Jadhav, Pakistan has said in court. Moreover, his decision to delay the survey request, thereby squandering the benefits of a hard-fought victory before the ICJ, as well as Pakistan's decision to hold an unusual public interview to announce this decision only days before the deadline, raise grave concerns.

This wager needed strong political backing. Executive Narendra Modi, who isn't afraid to take risks, was a strong supporter of Swaraj and then-unknown secretary and now-unknown cleric S Jaishankar. If the ICJ had accepted Pakistan's claim that the 2008 reciprocal agreement would win, it would have caused a confrontation with India. However, the judgement of July 17 resolved one important issue for all time - that the Vienna Convention outperforms the reciprocal arrangement.

India felt certain it would have a substantial amount of evidence against Pakistan. Its response has been limited from the start to a request for consular access to Jadhav, which Pakistan has repeatedly rejected. India did so by relying on a small loophole in the Vienna Convention on consular matters, one of just a few areas where India and Pakistan recognise one other[5]

"The ICJ stated the best it could do was order Pakistan to stop violating Article 36 and conduct an assessment of the matter to see if the violation impacted the outcome."The Court notes that Pakistan acknowledges that the appropriate remedy in the particular case would be a successful inspection and reassessment of the final judgment," it stated.To that objective, Pakistan is enlisted to immediately inform Jadhav of his rights under Section 36, and to present him with a prize.

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5]


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