IMPACT OF ISLAM ON HINDU SOCIETY DURING THE MEDIEVAL TIMES
Author: Gitika Mahawar, I year of B.A.,LL.B.(Hons.) from Symbiosis Law School, Pune
It is believed that Islam came to India in the seventh century when the Prophet Muhammad’s companion Malik Bin Deenar reached India’s western coast and later built a mosque there as a result of which Islam spread across the Indian subcontinent. Many kingdoms from outside, having different cultures and traditions have ruled India, they even adapted a few things from Hindus but Muslims also having different cultures began to influence Hindus due to which it has a long-lasting effect in terms of social life, food, clothing, religion, etc.
The new apparel incited by the Muslims was always replicated by the elegant Hindus. The effect of Muslim traditions was extreme to such an extent that the rich Hindus began adjusting to social decorum. Due to the amalgamation of two cultures, many Hindus gain skills and knowledge in different fields such as art, literature, architecture, music, etc. Muslims established a very capable and efficient administration structure which made trade and commerce easier. On the other hand, lower-class Hindus were suffering due to a lack of freedom. Although, a few Muslims emperors or rulers had great ideologies of treating everyone equally on the ground level people were facing the terror of Muslim armies as the army personnel used to torture and mistreat people which led to poor living standard as the people were not able to do jobs or duties without trepidation. People even faced forceful religious conversion due to which Hindus had to sustain a uniform social class or caste structure which affected the other aspects of their life.
Language and Literature
India saw great development in the field of language and literature during the period of the Delhi Sultanate. Books like Qazi Minhaz-us-Siraj’s ‘Tabakat-i-Nasiri’, Utbi’s ‘Kitaab-ul-Yamini’, Hassan Nizami’s ‘Taj-ul-Moa’, Ziauddin Barani’s ‘Tarikh-i-Firoze sahib made a great impact on Hindus. Babar the primary Mughal emperor was one of the pioneers of Turkish Poetry and therefore the author of Turkish Babar Nama which is one of the foremost valued autobiographies. Hindi Literature also made progress during the Mughal period as Surdas, Tulsidas, Keshavdas, and Rahim wrote their poems. In this period famous Persian texts were also written such as AkbarNama and Ain-i-Akbari which were written by Abdul Fazl. Many Sanskrit texts like Mahabharata, Ramayana, the Bhagavad Gita, Panchyatantra were also translated into different languages during this period which resulted in the expansion of the Indian literature in different regions.
One of the most important progress was the birth of the Urdu language which is now the richest literature in modern Indian culture. Indian language and literature underwent a substantial change and in the long run, both became closer to one another. Both cultures also influenced each other up to an extent in the development of the common ethnic legacy in India.
Art and Architecture
Acculturation between the Hindu and Muslim resulted in the advanced technique of architectonics and contributed to the Indian culture as the architectures of India evolved by learning different types of craftsmanship of different cultures under Muslim rule because the Muslim rulers were prominent builders and planner. An Open courtyard, a compound of chambers, and embellishment are the common features of Medieval Indian art and architecture which is a fusion of Persian, Turkish, and Arab styles with Indian styles. Most of the great art and architecture was built during the Delhi Sultanate. Architectures of Delhi Sultanate are categorized into three groups;
1) Royal or Delhi’s style of architecture
2) Regional Architectures
3) Hindu Architectures.
During this time the famous building which was constructed is Quwat-ul-Islam Mosque, Qutub-Minar, Alia Darwa, and Adhai-Dinka-Jhonpur. India’s artwork reached its heights under the rule of Shajahan, who was known as the Engineer King and Prince of Builders. He built many important buildings like Red Fort and Jama Masjid. The well-known Taj Mahal was also built by him in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
Hindu art after the invasion changed exceptionally as new forms of art techniques were introduced, for example, Enamelling, metals, and jewels, etc. In the initial stage of the Mughal rule, especially under Akbar’s rule, Muslim's and Hindu’s bond was good as it is evident that of the seventeen artists of the Akbar, thirteen were Hindus.
Impact on the social life, food, and clothing
Hindus, especially rich Hindus classes were influenced the most by the Muslim customs as compared to lower class Hindus as they had the accessibility of luxuries. They were fascinated by the clothing patterns such as The Jama, Chogha of Muslims and it was very usual that the new clothing instigated by the Muslims was also copied by the high-class Hindus. The impact of Muslim customs was so severe that the rich Hindus started adapting social etiquette and food habits like eating Biryani, Pulao, Kebab, Chicken Chap, Mutton Panda, etc. They also started adapting the vices of Muslims such as Gambling and Drinking.
Islam affected the social structure of India by irrupting as a result of which Indian had to make the caste system more rigid to strengthen the Hindu Society against Islam. The position or living standard of the women worsened under the Muslim rule mainly because they were refused equal opportunities, the status of freedom, and equality as compared to men. Muslim people used to abduct or kidnap Hindu women to marry them due to which women later were not allowed to engage in social activities or ceremonies. Jauhar and Sati Pratha became common during this period as the women were expected to ensure their safety of honour against Muslims. Slavery became very common as it was a symbol of higher position and status. It is known that Ala-Ud-Din Khilji had Eighty-four thousand slaves. Hindu lords and noblemen also implemented the practice of slavery and even Women slaves were offered as dowry by the Rajput families. Some of the recreational activities were also modified by the Muslims such as Hunting etc
Economical and religious impacts
It is known that the Muslim leaders were predominant in the political domain but the economy of the country was still under the Hindus as the Muslims were dependent on Hindu peasants for the cultivation of their lands. In the area of business and merchandising Hindus were ahead of Muslims as they were travelling warriors who were not acquainted with the trading practices of the Hindus. Baniyas were a crucial part of the economic structure of medieval times because they used to advance money to farmers, craftsmen, and others. Indian foreign trading which came to an end also revived due to the Muslim invasion.
The Muslims were indeed given the absolute freedom to transform individuals to their religion by the upper-class Hindus and the leaders, priests, extremists suggested that the Hindu and Muslim ideological paths are different but still leading to similar goals.
Hindu society was influenced by the religious aim of Islam to convert the highest number of Hindus due to which they had to adopt a more observant perspective to save the Hindu religion which resulted in strict regulation regarding eating habits, marriage customs, etc. Bhakti movement also started during the Muslim conquest. The main principle of the Bhakti movement was:
1) God is one.
2) To worship God-man should serve humanity.
3) All men are equal.
4) Worshipping God with devotion is better than performing religious ceremonies.
5) Caste discrimination and sorcery practices have to give up
Islamism has come a long way, and its emergence can be traced back to the partition of Bengal in 1905. All has changed in our collective habitat; from the way we live and where we live. This keeps us up to date with contemporary culture. Islam's arrival was not only a bad thing. With beneficial influence on our painting, literature, and music, it made mediaeval India an epitome of talent, which it still is today. The Taj Mahal is the perfect example of how Islam's effects on Indian society resulted in a good outcome. On the other hand, there are clear ethnic protests, which have resulted in the world is separated into two different countries based on religion.
The level of animosity that exists between Hindus and Muslims today is inhumane. Islam is India's second most popular religion, with an effect on the country's environment, culture, architecture, and art. In India, the Muslim community has contributed to philosophical studies as well as the creation of religious institutions, institutes, and universities. Sufism, a spiritual branch of Islam, is also common, with people flocking to see Sufi dance performances. As a result, contemporary life is a mix that we will see now. Many great Islamic scholars have represented our great mother country in front of the world and received awards as a result.
The attitude of the "Hindu" subjects, at least the artisans, toward the Muslim rulers is also expressed in some Devnagari inscriptions engraved on Qutb Minar. The Qutb Minar is known as "the pillar of Malikdin" according to an early inscription in the local dialect. The artisan regards its erection as a fortunate opportunity, as illustrated by the second paragraph, "May it bring good fortune." Similarly, an artisan from the reign of Alauddin Khalji refers to it as the Sultan's Victory Pillar (Sultan Alavadi Vijayasthamb). Nana and Salha, the builders, engraved their contribution to the Minar's restoration, which they were able to complete "by the grace of Sri Visvakarma." These inscriptions show not only the Sultans' active involvement of Hindu architects in their architectural designs but also that the city dwellers as a whole welcomed the Muslim rule. So, while it might not be as old as Hindu culture in India, its effect on society can be seen and felt daily.
Islam is one such religion, faith of harmony within the fullest feeling of the word. Islam is one of the many religions on the earth. In India around 15% of the whole populace is Muslim. The excellence of Islam enhances with each stroke of harmony. We need to, thusly, comprehend the philosophy of harmony given in Islam and base our activities upon this philosophy so harmony will for all time embellish the planet. With its appearance within the seventeenth century, the Islamic culture has had influenced the element with its effective culture.
The excellence of Islam enhances with each stroke of harmony. We need to, hence, comprehend the philosophy of harmony given in Islam and base our activities upon this philosophy so harmony will forever decorate the planet. This workpiece covers the powerful adventure that Islam as a faith and culture has had on the Hindus of the Indian element during the archaic period in 7 vital measurements. Food; that had an enormous hand commitment to Islamic custom as they delivered to us the new savouring idea of flavours, rehearses that were eventually coordinated into the rundown of popular and cherished Indian cooking. Apparel; Anarkalis, gauzy dupatta, and tight churidar that we will consider has had a fantastic grasp of impact by the Islamic culture introduced within the time of life of Indian history. Ruler Akbar himself participated in it. Islam had some unfavourable impacts on public activity, youngster marriage, daughter murder, subjection, purdah, and betting were some of these outrageous ones. Writing and history writing in India were consequently extraordinarily impacted by the Turko-Afghans during the Sultanate rule. a blended language appeared. it had been initially called Zaban-I-Hindavi (the language of the Indians) or Urdu. Neighbourhood language and writing developed to a big degree by the impact of Islam.
Inscriptional art the utilization of elaborate lettering or calligraphy; trim improvement; and therefore, the utilization of shaded marble, painted mortar, and brilliantly hued coated tiles are all-new factors conveyed through the tactic for Islam into Indian design. The tremendous development of the latest documentation within the field of music occurred during this period were Sufi and qawwali, the delighted melodic styles prepared from the blending Persian and Indian music. New instruments like tabla and sitar were made due to the mixture between the 2 societies. Within the Mughal school of expertise, the stunning nursery plans are the display of how splendour with delicacy came up during this time through the Islamic social effect.