• Brain Booster Articles


Updated: May 23

Author: Sameer Afzal Ansari, III year of B.A.,LL.B. from Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University

Introduction t

There tare tvarious tfunctionaries tunder tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure, 1973 twho thelp tto tregulate tthe tvarious tprovisions tof tthe tcode. tThe tfunctionaries tare tessential tfor tthe tproper tfunctioning tof tthe tcode. tThe tvarious tfunctionaries tmentioned tunder tthe tcode tare tthe tPolice, tPublic tProsecutors, tAssistant tPublic tProsecutors, tAdditional tProsecutors, tPrison tauthorities tand tthe tDefence tcounsel. tThe tpowers tand tfunctions tof tthe tfunctionaries tare tclearly tmentioned tin tthe tcode. t

The Police

The tPolice tOfficer tis tan timportant tauthority twho tis tthe tbackbone tof tcriminal tlaw tin tIndia. tThey tare tresponsible tfor tmaintaining tthe tlaw tand torder tof tthe tcountry. tThey tare talso tresponsible tfor tthe tenforcement tof tvarious tlaws tand torders. tThe tpolice tofficers thave tvarious tpowers tand tfunctions tthat thelp tto tprevent tvarious tcrimes thappening tin tour tcountry. tThere tis tno tdefinition tof tthe tterm t“Police” tin tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure tbut tthe tterm tis tdefined tin tthe tPolice tAct tof t1861. tAccording tto tthe tPolice tAct, t1861 tall tthe tpersons twho tare tenrolled tunder tthe tAct tare tknown tas tthe tPolice. t

The Police Act, 1861

The tPolice tAct, t1861 tis ta tcomprehensive tcode tthat tdeals twith tthe tappointment, tdismissal, tand tfunctions tof tthe tpolice tofficers. tThe tmain taim tof tthe tPolice tAct tis tto treorganize tthe tpolice tforces twhenever tnecessary tand tto tmake tthe tpolice tforces tmore teffective. tThe tPolice tAct tcontains t47 tsections twhich tdeal twith tthe tvarious taspects tof tthe tpolice tforce. tThe tPolice tAct tof t1861 tis ta tlegislation tthat twas tbrought tby tthe tBritish tofficers tafter tthe tFirst twar tof tindependence. tThere tare tvarious tstates tlike tKerala, tMaharashtra, tGujarat, tand tDelhi tthat thave tformulated ta tseparate tPolice tAct tfor ttheir tstates tbut tthey tare tvery tsimilar tto tthe tPolice tAct, t1861.

tOrganisation of the police

Section t2 tof tthe tPolice tAct, t1861 tdeals twith tthe tconstitution tof tthe tPolice tforce. tThe tState tGovernment tis tresponsible tfor testablishing ta tPolice tforce tin tthat tState. tAccording tto tthis tSection, tthe tentire tPolice testablishment tunder tthe tState tGovernment tis tdeemed tto tbe ta tsingle tPolice tforce. tThe tState tGovernment tcan tdecide tthe tnumber tof tofficers tto tbe tappointed tand tit tvaries tfrom ttime tto ttime. tSection t3 tprovides tthat tthe tsuperintendence tof tthe tPolice tand tthat thas tto tbe texercised tby tthe tState tGovernment. tThe tInspector-General tof tPolice tis tresponsible tfor tthe tadministration tof tthe tPolice tdepartment. tThe thierarchy tto tbe tfollowed twhile texercising tpower tis tDeputy tInspectors-General, tAssistant tInspectors- tGeneral, tSuperintendents, tetc. tAccording tto tSection t5, tthe tState tGovernment tmay timpose tany trestrictions ton tthe tpowers tof tthe tInspector-General tof tthe tPolice.

Section t7 tof tthe tPolice tAct tdeals twith tthe tappointment tand tdismissal tof tthe tinferior tofficers. tThis tSection tprovides tpowers tto tthe tInspector-General, tDeputy tInspectors-General, tAssistant tInspector-General tand tDistrict tSuperintendents tof tPolice tto tdismiss, tsuspend tor treduce tany tpolice tofficer tof tthe tsubordinate tranks. tThis taction tis ttaken twhen tthe tofficers tare tnegligent tin tdischarging ttheir tduties. tThere tis ta tcertificate tprovided tto tthe tPolice tOfficers tafter ttheir tappointment taccording tto tSection t8 twhich tallows thim tto texercise tpowers tprovided tby tthe tAct. tSection t17 tof tthe tAct tdeals twith tthe tappointment tof tSpecial tpolice tofficers. tSpecial tPolice tOfficers tare tappointed tin ta tsituation twhen tthere tis ta triot tor tdisturbance tof tpeace tin tany tform tand tthe tPolice tOfficer tnormally tappointed tcannot thandle tthe tsituation. tThe tSpecial tPolice tOfficers tare tappointed tby tthe tInspector tGeneral tin tcharge tafter tproviding ta tproper tapplication tto tthe tMagistrate. tThe tpowers tof tSpecial tPolice tOfficers tare tthe tsame tas tthe tnormal tPolice tOfficers. tAccording tto tSection t20, tthe tPolice tOfficers tcan texercise tonly tthe tauthority tprovided tin tthe tAct tand tcannot texercise tany tother tpower texceeding tthis tAct.


Functions of the police

Section t23 tof tthe tPolice tAct, t1861 tdeals twith tthe tfunctions tof tthe tPolice tOfficer. tAccording tto tthis tSection, tit tis tthe tduty tof tevery tPolice tOfficer,

  1. To tcollect tand tcommunicate tintelligence.

  2. To tprevent tthe tcommission tof toffences tand tpublic tnuisance.

  3. To tfigure tout tand tbring toffenders.

  4. To tpromptly tobey tand texecute tall torders texecuted tto thim tby tany tcompetent tauthority.

  5. To tarrest tall tpersons tif tany tcrime tis tcommitted tand twhom the tis tlegally tauthorized tto tarrest.

  6. To tenter tand tinspect tany tdrinking tor tgambling thouse tor tother tplaces twithout ta twarrant tto tsolve tloose tor tdisorderly tcharacters.

Section t25 tprovides tthat tit tis tthe tduty tof tevery tPolice tOfficer tto ttake tcharge tof tunclaimed tproperty. tThe tPolice tOfficer thas tto tpay ta tpenalty tfor tneglecting this tduty. tThe tMagistrate tmight teven tpunish tPolice tOfficers twith timprisonment tif tit tis tnecessary.

Other Police Acts

The tPolice tAct tis tthe tmain tlegislation twhich tregulates tthe tPolice tforces tin tIndia. tThe tvarious tprovisions tin tIndian tPenal tCode, t1860 tand tthe tCriminal tProcedure tCode tare talso tresponsible tfor tregulating tvarious tfunctions tof tthe tPolice. tThere tare talso tcertain tprovision tlike tSection t26 tand tSection t27 tin tthe tIndian tEvidence tAct, t1872 twhich tprovides tpower tto tthe tPolice tto trecord tconfessional tstatements. tThere tare talso tdifferent tregulations tand tmanuals, tfor texample, tthe tmanuals tin tTamil tNadu twhich tregulates tthe tvarious tfunctions tand tduties tof tPolice.T

Importance of Police under the Code

The tPolice tare tprovided twith tlots tof tduties tand tpowers tunder tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure, t1973. tSection t151 tof tthe tCode tprovides tpower tto tarrest ta tperson twithout tany twarrant tand torders tfrom tMagistrate tto tprevent tthe tcommission tof tany tcognizable toffences. tThe tperson tarrested tcannot tbe tdetained tin tcustody tfor ta tperiod tnot texceeding tmore tthan t24 thours tfrom this tarrest. tThis tperiod tcan talso tbe textended tif tit tis trequired tby tthe tvarious tprovisions tof tthis tAct tor tother tlaws tin tforce. tAccording tto tSection t154, tthe tPolice tOfficers thave tthe tpower tto trecord tevery tinformation tprovided torally tif tit trelates tto tthe tcommission tof ta tcognizable toffence. tThis tSection talso tsays tthat tcertain tcomplaints tcan tbe trecorded tonly tby tthe twomen tPolice tOfficers tif ta tcomplaint tis tgiven tunder tthe tvarious tprovisions tof tthe tIndian tPenal tCode twhich trelates tto tthe toffences tagainst twomen, tSection t156 tof tthe tCode tprovides tpower tto tthe tMagistrate tto tinvestigate tany tcognizable toffence twithin ttheir tjurisdiction twithout tthe torder tof tany tMagistrate. t

Public Prosecutors

Section t24 tof tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure tdeals twith tthe tPublic tProsecutor. tThe tmain tfunction tof tthe toffice tof tPublic tProsecutor tis tto tadminister tjustice tand tto tsecure tthe tpublic tpurpose tentrusted twith thim. tThe tPublic tProsecutor tis tan timportant tofficer tof tthe tState tGovernment tand tis tappointed taccording tto tthe tprovisions tof tthis tcode. tThe tPublic tProsecutor tis tan tindependent tstatutory tauthority tand tis tnot ta tpart tof tany tinvestigating tagency. t

It tis tmandatory tto tappoint ta tPublic tProsecutor tin tall tthe tcases twhen tthe tprosecution tis tagainst tthe tState. tThe tCourt tcannot tprovide tany treasons tlike tshortage tof tfunds tto tappoint ta tPublic tProsecutor. tThe tAdvocate-General tcannot tbecome ta tPublic tProsecutor tunless the tis tappointed tunder tSection t24. tThe trelationship tbetween tthe tPublic tProsecutor tand tthe tGovernment tis tthat tof ta tcounseltand ta tclient. tThe tPublic tProsecutor tshall tnever tbe tpartial tto teither tthe taccused tor tprosecution.

There tare tvarious tclasses tof tPublic tProsecutor tlike,

  • Public tProsecutors tappointed tby tthe tState tGovernment tand tthe tCentral tGovernment;

  • Additional tPublic tProsecutors tappointed tby tthe tState tGovernment;

  • Special tPublic tProsecutors tappointed tby tthe tCentral tGovernment;

  • Special tPublic tProsecutors tappointed tby tthe tState tGovernment.

Public Prosecutors and additional public prosecutors for High Court

Section t24(1) tof tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure tprovides tpowers tto tthe tCentral tGovernment tor tState tGovernment tto tappoint ta tPublic tProsecutor tfor tevery tHigh tCourt. tThey tcan talso tappoint tone tor tmore tAdditional tPublic tProsecutors. tThe tappropriate tGovernment tcan tappoint tthe tPublic tProsecutors tafter tconsultation twith tthe tHigh tCourt. tThe teligibility tof tthe tperson tto tbe tappointed tas ta tPublic tProsecutor tis tthat the tshould tbe tpractising tas tan tAdvocate tfor tnot tless tthan tseven tyears.

Public Prosecutors and Additional Public Prosecutors for districts

Section t24 tprovides tvarious trules tregarding tthe tappointment tof tPublic tProsecutors tand tAdditional tPublic tProsecutors tfor tdistricts. tThe tCentral tGovernment tcan tappoint tone tor tmore tPublic tProsecutors tfor tconducting tcases tin tany tdistrict tor tlocal tarea. tThe tState tGovernment tcan talso tappoint tone tor tmore tAdditional tPublic tProsecutors tfor tthe tdistrict. tThe tPublic tProsecutor tor tAdditional tPublic tProsecutor tappointed tfor ta tdistrict tcan talso tbe tappointed tfor tanother tdistrict tin tcertain tcases. tThe tDistrict tMagistrate twill tprepare ta tpanel tof tnames tof tpersons twho tare teligible tto tbe tappointed tas ta tPublic tProsecutor tor tAdditional tPublic tProsecutor. tThis tlist tis tprepared tafter tconsulting tthetSessions tJudge. tThe tState tGovernment tcannot tappoint tany tother tperson tas tthe tPublic tProsecutor tor tAdditional tPublic tProsecutor tother tthan tthe tpersons tprovided tin tthe tpanel tof tnames.

Assistant public prosecutors

Section t25 tof tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure tdeals twith tthe tappointment tof tAssistant tPublic tProsecutors. tThe tState tGovernment thas tto tappoint tone tor tmore tAssistant tPublic tProsecutors tfor tconducting tprosecutions tin tdifferent tdistricts. tThe tAssistant tPublic tProsecutors thave tno tright tto tpractise tas tadvocates tor tdefend tthe taccused tin tcriminal tcases. tTheir tonly twork tis tto tconduct tprosecutions ton tbehalf tof tthe tState. tA tpolice tofficer twho tis tnot tbelow tthe trank tof tInspector tand twho thas tnot ttaken tpart tin tthe tinvestigation tof toffence tcan talso tbe tappointed tas tAssistant tPublic tProsecutor twhen tthere tis tno tavailability. tThe tAssistant tPublic tProsecutors tare tfull-time tGovernment tservants.

In tthe tcase tof tKannappan tv. tAbbas, tthe tMadras tHigh tCourt theld tthat tthe tpermission tgranted tby ta tMagistrate tpermitting tthe taccused tto tappear tfor tthe taccused twas twithout tjurisdiction. tThe tPublic tProsecutor tis tnot tcompetent tto tact tas ta tdefence tcounsel teven tin ta tprivate tcriminal tcomplaint tagainst tpolice tofficers.

Role of the Prosecutors

The tPublic tProsecutors tare tappointed tto tconduct tany tprosecution, tappeal tor tany tother tproceedings ton tbehalf tof tthe tCentral tGovernment tor tState tGovernment. tThe tPublic tProsecutor tis tbound tto tsatisfy thimself tthat tthere tis ta tjustification tto tseek tan torder tof tremand tto tjudicial tcustody tand tto tassist tthe tCourt, tfor texample tin ta tcase, tthe tAssistant tPublic tProsecutor tconducted ta tcase tunder tthe tPrevention tof tFood tAdulteration tAct, tthe ttrial twas timpaired tas tthe tAssistant tPublic tProsecutor thas tno tauthority tto tconduct tthose tcases.


The tCourts tare tanother timportant tfunctionary tunder tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure. tThere tare tvarious tclasses tof tCriminal tCourt tlike,

  • Courts tof tSession;

  • Judicial tMagistrates tof tthe tfirst tclass tand, tin tany tmetropolitan tarea, tMetropolitan tMagistrates;

  • Judicial tMagistrates tof tthe tsecond tclass; tand

  • Executive tMagistrates.

The tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure thas tclearly tdifferentiated tthe tvarious tfunctions tof tthe tcourt tand thas tdedicated tvarious tpowers tto tvarious tclasses tof tCourts tin tChapter tthree tof tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure. tSection t26 tof tthis tcode tmentions tthat tthe tHigh tCourt, tthe tCourt tof tSession tor tany tother tCourt tas tspecified tin tthe tFirst tSchedule tof tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure tis teligible tto ttry toffences tprovided tunder tthe tIndian tPenal tCode. tSection t28, tSection t29 tand tSection t30 tdeals twith tthe tvarious tkinds tof tsentences tthat tcan tbe tpassed tby tdifferent tCourts twhich thelps tthe tprocedure tof ttrial tand talso tthe tpowers tbetween tthe tCourts tget tdistributed tproperly. tThe tCourts tgovern tthe tentire tprocess tof ttrial tand tacts tas ta tregulating tauthority.

The Defence Counsel

Every tperson tarrested tby tthe tpolice thas ta tright tto tdefend thimself twith tthe thelp tof ta tcounsel. tIn tthe tcase tof tState tof tMadhya tPradesh tv.Shobharam, tit twas tprovided tthat tany tlaw tthat ttakes taway tthe tright tto tdefend tis tagainst tthe trights tguaranteed tin tthe tconstitution. tThis tprovision tshould tbe tconstrued tin trelation tto tArticle t22 tof tthe tConstitution twhich tprovides tthe tright tto tfree tlegal taid tto tthe taccused. tThe tarrest tleads tto trestriction tof tpersonal tliberty tand tthus tthe tright tto tdefend thimself tby tthe tcounsel tof this tchoice tis ta tcompulsory tright. tSection t303 tof tthe tCriminal tProcedure tCode tprovides tthis tright tto tappoint ta tdefence tcounsel tof ttheir tchoice. tThis tprovision tmust tbe tconstrued tliberally tin tfavour tof tthe taccused talong twith tthe tother tprovisions tand torders tissued tby tthe tHigh tCourts. tA tdefence tcounsel tshould tbe tprovided tto tthe taccused teventin tcases tof tcommitting tcapital toffences twhere tthey thave tno tright tto tdefend tthemselves. tThe tright tguaranteed tunder tthis tSection tis tindispensable tas tit tguarantees ta tfair ttrial. tWhen tthe taccused tis tnot trepresented tby tcounsel, tit tis tthe tduty tof tthe tcourt tto tput tappropriate tquestions tto tthe twitnesses tin tcross-examinations tin torder tto tfind tout tthe ttruth. tThe tcourt talso thas tthe tduty tto texamine tthe tevidence.

Prison authorities and correctional services personnel

The tPrison tauthorities tare tnot tdirectly tgoverned tby tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure teven tthough tthey tare tinvolved tin tthe tvarious tstages tof tthe tproceedings. tThe tPrisoners tAct, t1900 tis tan timportant tact twhich tgoverns tthe tvarious tduties tof tprison tauthorities. tAccording tto tSection t3 tof tthe tPrisoners tAct, tthe tofficer tin tcharge thas tthe tduty tto tdetain tpersons twho tare tconvicted tuntil tthe tperson tis tremoved tin tdue tcourse tof tlaw. tSection t4 tof tthe tPrisoners tAct tgives tthe tofficers tto treturn tthe torder, twrit tor twarrant tto tthe tcourt tafter tthe tdischarge tof tpersons twho tcommitted tthe tcrime. tThe tState tGovernment thas tpowers tto tappoint tprison tauthorities. tThe tprison tpersonnel tare tappointed tfor tthe tmanagement tof tcorrectional tservices tlike tproviding trecreational tservices tand tsecuring tthe tsafety tof tinmates.


The tfunctionaries tunder tthe tCode tof tCriminal tProcedure tare tvery tessential tfor tthe tenforcement tof tvarious tprovisions tof tthis tCode. tEach tfunctionary thas ta tdifferent tduty twhich ttogether tregulates tvarious tprovisions tof tthis tcode. tThe tpublic tshould tbe taware tof tthe tvarious tfunctions tperformed tby tthese tfunctionaries tin torder tto tapproach tthem twhen tthere tis tan tissue. tThe tPublic tshould tsupport tthese tfunctionaries tin tevery tway tpossible tto thelp tthem tperform ttheir tduties. tThus tthese tauthorities tform tan timportant tpart tof tthe tcriminal tproceedings.