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FGM: FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION

Author: Simran Yunus, pursuing B.A.,LL.B. from BIHAR INSTITUTE OF LAW (BIL)


INTR0DUCTION What is FGM , it is simply the cutting of or the removal of external female genitals or other injury to the female genital organs, for traditional and religious reasons.It is mostly practiced in the Muslim, Christian and Jewish faiths. it is also practiced among someanimists who believein the existence of individual spirits and supernatural forces.

FGM could be stated as the most inhuman and insane act by humans. it is both mental aswell as a physical to1ure to the females. It leaves a mark on the spirit of the victim undergone the process haunting them for the restof their life. Noneof the religion allows FGM neither any of the religious books mentions it. it is nothing but just a vague tradition established by some contractor of religion who believes themselves to be the messenger of God.

The basic reason given behind the practise of FGM is that it is just an unwanted skin womendoes not needit removing it willsave them from impurities and uncieaniiness, and will stopthem from becoming sexually aroused.

IDEA BEHIND FGM The concept of FGM is no doubtled by the religious scholars, So they give it a total religious baseso that peoplepractice it widely due to the fear of gods and in the greed of getting place in heaven. They made it nothing but just a religious obligation to be followed by all in the name of god.

They havecreated a belief that removing the clitoris is essential to prevent womens from becoming sexually aroused and having sex before marriage it helps in preserving their virginity before marriage. it is believed that FGM wouldbenefit the females by saving them from impurityand uncleanliness, as according to them it is the unwanted skin and the femaTes does not need it.

However no religion allows or mentions any such act. The senior muslimauthorities agrees that FGM is neither required nor prohibited by islam. The Quran does not mention FGM or Male Circumcision. FGM is praised in a few hadith as noble but not required.

The Bible also does not mention FGM the christian authorities agrees that the practise has no foundation in Christianity religious texts. The Tanakhor the HebrewBible also does not allows or mentions FGM.


LEGALTTY OR ILLEGALITY OF FGM It is practiced world wide in Muslim Christian and Jewish population. Some countries have banned it totally whether some have made it legal andmandatory, It is punishable offence in European countries. Though it is secretly practised people flew to the other places where it is not banned and undergoes the process and returns the mutilation. Following are percentage of population of countries practising FGM according to estimates from demographic and health surveys : EGYPT: 38% SUDAN: 67% KENYA: 15% NIGERIA: 13% GUINEA: 15% SOMALIA: 98%

Somaia has the highestrate of FGM in the world. Other countries highly practising FGM are SAUDI ARABIA, OMAN , IRAN , KUWAIT , MALI, DJIBOUTI, EGYPT , SUDAN , SOMALIA.

Countries having no laws on FGM : SAUDI ARABIA , INDIA , YEMEN.

Countries banned FGM: USA , UK , ALL EU MEMBER STATE, CANADA, TEXAS, EGYPT.


PROCESS OF FGM There are fourmain types of FGM TYPE 1 : CLITORIDECTOMY:: removing part or all of the clitoris. TYPE 2 : EXCISION :: removing partor all of the clitoris and the inner labia (the lips that surround the vagina ) with or without removal of the labia majora (the iarger outer lips ). TYPE 3 : INFIBULATION:: narrowing the vaginal opening by creating a seal formed by cuttingand repositioning thelabia. TYPE 4 : Other harmful procedures :: Pricking , piercing , cutting , scraping , or burning the area. It is peformed by traditional circumcisers or cutters who do not have any medical training. In somecountries it may be done by a medical professional. Anesthesia or Antiseptics are not generally used and FGM is often carried out using knives, scissors , scalpels , piecesof glass or razor blades. It is mostly done before the age of 15. some even do this at the timeof bilh or between 2to 5 years of age. The child is manipulated and took to the fgm centreswhich are mostlya dark room with no proper equipments and professional cutters or hygiene. They are forced to lie down and undergo the process.


EFFECTS OF FGM There is no healthbenefits to FGMand it causes serious harmto the females. It affects them in boih waysmen1aIIy and physically. It is nothing more than an abuse and assault.

PHYSTCAL EFFECTS:: The effect on body includes 1: Constant pain. 2: Pain and diFiculty having sex. 3: Repeated infections leading to infertility. 4: Bleeding cysts and abscesses. 5: Problem peeing or holding pee. 6: Problem duringlabour and childbinh. which can be life threatening for mother and baby. 7: Somegirls die fromblood loss or infection as a direct result of the procedure. MENTAL EFFECTS :: FGM can be an extremely lraumatic experience lhat can cause emotional diFiculties throughout life , including depression , anxiety , dashbacks to the time of cutting , Nightmares , insomniac reaction due to overthinking.


CONSENT TO FGM It is obvious that no one want to bear such pain ever in their life. As FGM is such a horrific procedure none among the females would like to undergo such a procedure. But there is another view point in regard to the consent to FGM some of the females suppo1 FGM as they are taught from the very beginning of their infant hood that its a way of worshipping and necessary for their safety and will secure a place for them in heaven.

With due course of time females have started opposingFGM and raisingtheir voice against it. And brought the dark process in light, so that theworld could talk about it and help them in revolting against the malpractice.


FGM IN INDIA india has no iaw against the malpractice. The nation has not made it either legal or illegal. The maipractice of FGM is still hanging between being iegai or illegal in the na1ion. There is a mere silence regarding the laws for FGM. According to UNICEF study of march 2018 there is an estimate of 200 million girls undergone FGM in India, FGM in india is practiced by the Dawoodi Bohra a sec1 of Shia Islam.

The population of the Dawoodi Bohra in India is approx 5 lakhs. The majority resides in South Mumbai Bhendi Bazar. Other Bohra Sects including the Sulemani Bohras and the Aiavi Bohras , as well as some Sunni communities in Kerala are reported as practising FGM. A PIL is filed against the practise of FGM in India by Sunitatiwari

SUNITA TIWARI VS UNION IF INDIA CASE NUMBER : WP (C) 286/2017 Several NGO wre working to stop the malpractice in the nation. And helping the victims to raise their voice.


LIST OF INTERNATIONAL NGO WORKING TO ERADICATE FGM GLOBALLY 1: DESERT FLOWER FOUNDATiON 2: EQUALITY NOW 3: ACTION AID UK 4: WALLACE GLOBAL FUND 5: 28 TOO MANY 6: DAUGHTERS OF EVE 7: AFRiCAN WOMEN ORGANiZATiON 8: WORLDHEALTH ORGANiZATiON 9: END FGM EUROPEAN NETWORK 10: SAFE HANDS 11: BEYOND FGM 12: THE UN REFUGEE AGENCY 13: FORWARD 14: THE GiRL GENERATION 15: AFRiCA COORDlNATiNGCENTRE FOR THE ABANDONMENT OF FGM/C 16: SAVE THE CHiLDREN 17: ORCHiD PROJECT 18: FGM NATiONAL CLiNiCGROUP 19: PLAN INTERNATIONAL 20: HOPEFOUNDATION FOR AFRiCAN WOMEN.


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