COUNTRIES OF SOUTH ASIA AND THEIR ROLE IN THE WELFARE STATE
Author: Yashika Mor, pursuing B.A.,LL.B. from B.A.,LL.B. from Geeta Institute of Law
Despite the fact that Asian developmental welfare state models are still in their infancy, they may provide a useful baseline for the post-2015 development debate. The role of the state has diminished, and it needs to be reviewed in light of a new, comprehensive, and progressive »development« agenda beyond 2015, as well as rising disparities within and between countries. The welfare state – in the form of a democratic developmental welfare state – is an ideal framework for framing the issue for this purpose because of its commitment to both social fairness and democracy. The neoliberal goal of replacing government activities with the market and private sector is gaining traction. A well-functioning, accountable, and sufficiently resourced state is essential to address inequities. There are five basic types of developmental welfare states in Asia, each responding differently to poverty, vulnerability, social exclusion, demographic challenges, environmental stress, and, to a lesser extent, wealth disparities. Despite its claims to be committed to welfare state programmes, Asia has seen disparities in human development, poverty reduction, social income equality, and social inclusion spending. In terms of its commitment to social justice, the welfare state can be characterised as assuring universal access to social services, setting procedures for access to employment and decent work, and offering a package of social benefits.
The government assists individuals, provides social security, and enforces environmental standards, among other things. In this context, social protection functions as both a mechanism for income redistribution (through tax policy mechanics) and a source of long-term systemic stability. Due to the increasing intensity of vulnerability, income and multidimensional poverty, employment informality, income inequality, and ecological degradation observed in all countries, the potential for income redistribution and environmental regulation has become especially important in the current discourse on gender equality, social inclusion, and intergenerational justice. Social security is divided into two types: contribution-based and tax-funded. Environmental policy, defined as policies and actions that address environmental sustainability, has recently been seen as vital to welfare state policy (UNRISD 2014), and hence might be considered a sixth pillar in the enterprise sector. The list, obviously, reflects a broad view of the welfare state. Most countries play a welfare state role, according to a liberal interpretation of these requirements, with policies spanning education and health, social protection, labour market programmes, and family policy. Compulsory elementary education is currently the norm around the world, even if it is not free in many nations. Health-care delivery systems and health-insurance coverage are changing in a variety of ways. Many governments have attempted to make it safer and more affordable. At least 50 countries have implemented or enhanced social safety net programmes such as direct cash transfers and school lunches (United Nations 2013: 33)
The first is a set of developmental welfare states that intervened in the economy with a deliberate industrial policy aimed at increasing agricultural output, fostering new manufacturing branches, or easing the transition to the service sector. Initially, these countries undertook social endeavours to improve the lives of their residents. Two questions have been attempted to be answered in this short. One source of concern is the state's participation in the democratic (developmental) welfare state in its apparently progressive form. The second looks at the natural environment, examining the characteristics of Asian welfare states in order to determine whether an Asian welfare state mode exists. Five principles underpin SAARC cooperation: sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non-interference in member states' internal affairs, and mutual benefit. Bilateral and international ties between SAARC member countries are bolstered through regional cooperation. Every year, the SAARC Summit is held, and the country hosting the event serves as the Association's Chair. Decisions must be unanimous, and bilateral and contentious issues are not discussed in the SAARC. Nine Observer States attend SAARC Summits in addition to the eight Member States: China, the United States, Myanmar, Iran, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Mauritius, and the European Union.
With about 1 billion people living under democratic regimes, South Asia is the world's most populated region among constitutional democratic republics, compared to populations of 500 million in the European Union, North America, and South America. Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, the three main countries of the Indian subcontinent, began their modern democratic journey as members of the British Indian Empire, particularly with British India's parliament. In 1931, the Donoughmore Constitution gave Sri Lankans full suffrage, making it Asia's oldest democracy. Fundamental rights are now inscribed in the constitutions of every country in South Asia. SOUTH ASIA is a vast Asian region to the east of the Indian subcontinent and to the south of China. A continental projection (often known as mainland Southeast Asia) and a string of archipelagos to the south and east make up the region (insular Southeast Asia). Although the Malay Peninsula, which reaches 700 miles (1,100 kilometres) south into insular Southeast Asia, is nominally part of the mainland, it has significant natural and cultural ties to the surrounding islands, serving as a link between them.